Friday, July 25, 2014

Hamdy O and Carver C. “The Why WAIT program: improving clinical outcomes through weight management in type 2 diabetes.” Curr Diab Rep 8: 413-420 (2008)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This open study using a diet with the macronutrient composition of the Zone diet demonstrated significant clinical outcomes in type 2 diabeteic patients with a subsequent reduction of their associated medical costs. [PUBMED]

Lasker DA, Evans EM, and Layman DK. “Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial.” Nutr Metab 5:30 (2008)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This randomized study demonstrated the superiority of the Zone diet compared to an isocaloric diet with higher carbohydrate and lower protein content. [PUBMED]

Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahren B, Branell UC, Palsson G, Hansson A, Soderstrom M, and Lindeberg S. “Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study.” Cardiovasc Diabetol 8:35 (2008)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study demonstrated that a diet with a Zone diet balance of protein, carbohydrate, and fat had a greater reduction on cardiovascular and diabetic risk factors that an isocaloric diet with a higher carbohydrate and lower protein content. [PUBMED]

Layman DK, Evans EM, Erickson D, Seyler J, Weber J, Bagshaw D, Griel A, Psota T, and Kris-Etherton P. “A moderate-protein diet produces sustained weight loss and long-term changes in body composition and blood lipids in obese adults.” J Nutr 139: 514-521 (2009)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This randomized study demonstrated that overweigth subjects lose more body fat compared to an isocaloric diet with a higher carbohydrate and lower protein content. [PUBMED]

Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, Lovesky MM, and Ludwig DS. “Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial.” JAMA 297: 2092-2102 (2007) (ISSN: 1538-3598)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This randomized study indicated a diet with a macronutrient composition similar to the Zone diet causes significantly greater weight loss in subjects with an initially high insulin response compared to an isocaloric diet with higher carbohydrate and lower protein content. PUBMED

Gardner CD, Kim S, Bersamin A, Dopler-Nelson M, Otten J, Oelrich B, and Cherin R. “Micronutrient quality of weight-loss diets that focus on macronutrients: results from the A TO Z study.” Am J Clin Nutr 92: 304-312 (2010)

Dr. Sears’ comments: To lose weight you have to reduce calories. This study found that in various hypocaloric diets tested, only the Zone diet provided increased micronutrient content for the subjects. [PUBMED]

Pittas AG, Roberts SB, Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Saltzman E, Golden J, Stark PC, and Greenberg AS. “The effects of the dietary glycemic load on type 2 diabetes risk factors during weight loss.” Obesity 14: 2200-2209 (2006) (ISSN: 1930-7381)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study demonstrated that in type 2 diabetics using the Zone diet lower inflammation to a greater degree compared to an isocaloric diet with a higher carbohydrate and lower protein content although the weight loss was the same. []PUBMED]

Larsen TM, Dalskov SM, van Baak M, Jebb SA, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer AF, Martinez JA, Handjieva-Darlenska T, Kunesova M, Pihlsgard M, Stender S, Holst C, Saris WH, and Astrup A. “Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance.” N Engl J Med 363: 2102-2113 (2010)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study indicated that a higher protein, lower carbohydrate diet provided greater weight loss and weight maintenance compared to other diets in a randomized trial. [PUBMED]

Kuipers RS, Luxwolda MF, Dijck-Brouwer DA, Eaton SB, Crawford MA, Cordain L, and Muskiet FA. “Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet.” Br J Nutr 104: 1666-1687 (2010)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study indicated that the current best estimate of a Paleolithic diet was extremely similar to the macronutrient composition of the Zone diet. [PUBMED]

Pereira MA, Swain J, Goldfine AB, Rifai N, and Ludwig DS. “Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss.” JAMA 2004 Nov 24;292(20):2482-90 (ISSN: 1538-3598)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study demonstrated that the Zone diet was nine more effective in reducing inflammation than an isocaloric diet with a higher carbohydrate and lower protein content even though the weight loss was the same.[PUBMED]

Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, Erlanson-Albertsson C, Ahren B, Lindeberg S. “A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease.” Nutr Metab (Lond) 7:85 (2010)

Dr. Sears’ comments:This study demonstrated that diet with the macronutrient composition of the Zone diet was more satiating per calorie than a diet with a higher carbohyrate and lower protein content. [PUBMED]

Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, Matsuzawa Y, Saito Y, Ishikawa Y, Oikawa S, Sasaki J, Hishida H, Itakura H, Kita T, Kitabatake A, Nakaya N, Sakata T, Shimada K, and Shirato K. “Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis.” Lancet 369:1090-1098 (2007)

Dr. Sears’ comments:  This study indicated that reducing the AA/EPA ratio with high-dose EPA in patients already taking statins gives rise to a significant further reduction of major cardiovascular events. [PUBMED]

Germano M, Meleleo D, Montorfano G, Adorni L, Negroni M, Berra B, andRizzo AM. “Plasma, red blood cells phospholipids and clinical evaluation after long chain omega-3 supplementation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).” Nutr Neurosci 10: 1-9 (2007)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This paper confirms the benefits of high-dose EPA and DHA in the treatment of ADHD. [PUBMED]

Sorgi PJ, Hallowell EM, Hutchins HL, and Sears B. “Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Nutr J 6:16 (2007)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This paper demonstrates the ability of high-dose EPA and DHA to have a significant benefit in the treatment of ADHD. [PUBMED]

Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, Lovesky MM, and Ludwig DS “Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial.” JAMA 297: 2092-2102 (2007)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study demonstrated that overweight individuals with a high initial insulin response have significantly greater weight loss on the Zone Diet compared to a low-fat diet of equal calorie intake. [PUBMED]

Johnston CS, Tjonn SL, Swan PD, White A, Hutchins H, and Sears B. “Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets.” Am J Clin Nutr 83: 1055-1061 (2006)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study demonstrated that the Atkins diet significantly increased silent inflammation as well as having adverse metabolic and emotional consequences compared to the Zone Diet. [PUBMED]

Gannon MC and Nuttall FQ. “Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition.” Nutr Metab (Lond) 3: 16 (2006)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This paper demonstrated without any weight loss a Zone Diet was better able to control blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetics than the recommended diabetic diet. [PUBMED]

Pittas AG, Roberts SB, Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Saltzman E, Golden J, Stark PC, and Greenberg AS.   “The effects of the dietary glycemic load on type 2 diabetes risk factors during weight loss.” Obesity 14: 2200-2209 (2006)

Dr. Sears’ comments: The paper demonstrated that the Zone Diet had a significantly greater reduction in C-reactive protein levels than did the standard diet recommended to diabetic patients. [PUBMED]

Dr. Sears’ comments: The 2005 dietary recommendations of the Joslin Diabetes Research Center at Harvard Medical for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes are essentially those of the Zone Diet. [PDF]

Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Migliorini S, and Lodi L.“Cognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjects.” Eur J Clin Invest 2005 Nov;35(11):691-699 (2005)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This trial demonstrated that high dose EPA/DHA concentrates significantly improved mood and reaction times in healthy, active subjects. [PUBMED]

Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Bugarini R, Fiaschi AI, Cerretani D, Montorfano G, Rizzo AM, and Berra B. “Blood profiles, body fat and mood state in healthy subjects on different diets supplemented with Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Eur J Clin Invest 35: 499-507 (2005)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study compared the Zone Diet plus or minus high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates to the standard recommended diet in healthy, active individuals with the Zone Diet again beginning demonstrated to have superior performance results. [PUBMED]

Pittas AG, Das SK, Hajduk CL, Golden J, Saltzman E, Stark PC, Greenberg AS, and Roberts SB. "A low-glycemic load diet facilitates greater weight loss in overweight adults with high insulin secretion but not in overweight adults with low insulin secretion in the CALERIE Trial." Diabetes Care 28: 2939-2941 (2005)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This was the first study to indicate that individuals with a high initial insulin response will do better on the Zone Diet than the USDA Food Pyramid diet. [PUBMED]

Johnston CS, Tjonn SL, and Swan PD. “High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults.” J Nutr 134: 586-591 (2004)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study indicated that the Zone Diet induced greater satiety than an isocaloric high carbohydrate diet. [PUBMED]

Fontana L, Meyer TE, Klein S, and Holloszy JO. “Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:6659-6663 (2004)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study indicated that calorie restriction using a dietary composition similar to the Zone Diet results in highly significant cardiovascular improvements as I predicted in The Anti-Aging Zone published in 1999. [PUBMED]

Pereira MA, Swain J, Goldfine AB, Rifai N, and Ludwig DS. “Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss.” JAMA 292: 2482-2490 (2004)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This paper demonstrated that the Zone Diet was nine more effective in lower C-reactive protein than the USDA Food Pyramid diet generally recommended to heart patients. [PUBMED]

Lemaitre RN, King IB, Mozaffarian D, Kuller LH, Tracy RP, and Siscovick DS. “n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, fatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal myocardial infarction in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.” Am J Clin Nutr 77: 319-325 (2003)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study demonstrated that increased levels of EPA and DHA in blood were associated with a 68% decrease in fatal heart attacks. [PUBMED]

Thies F, Garry JM, Yaqoob P, Rerkasem K, Williams J, Shearman CP, Gallagher PJ, Calder PC, and Grimble RF. “Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with stability of atherosclerotic plaques: a randomised controlled trial.” Lancet 361: 477-485 (2003)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study indicated that significant reduction in inflammation found in atherosclerotic plaques could be observed in a relatively short period of time using EPA and DHA. [PUBMED]

Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC, Saeed A, Jordan K, and Hoover H. “The metabolic response of subjects with type 2 diabetes to a high-protein, weight-maintenance diet.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003 88: 3577-3583 (2003)

Dr. Sears’ comments: Not only was the Zone Diet superior in glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients, but many other hormonal responses were also improved. [PUBMED]

Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Saeed A, Jordan K, and Hoover H. “An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes.” Am J Clin Nutr 78: 734-741 (2003)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This paper indicated that the Zone Diet was superior to the recommended diabetic diet in lowering post-prandial fasting glycemic responses in type 2 diabetics without any change in body weight. [PUBMED]

Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, and Christou DD. “A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women.” J Nutr 133: 411-417 (2003)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study demonstrates under isocaloric conditions, the Zone Diet generates superior improvements in body composition and blood lipid profiles compared to the USDA Food Pyramid. [PUBMED]

Layman DK, Shiue H, Sather C, Erickson DJ, and Baum J. “Increased dietary protein modifies glucose and insulin homeostasis in adult women during weight loss.” J Nutr 133: 405-410 (2003)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study demonstrates that the Zone Diet has a significant improvement of fasting glucose and insulin levels during decreased calorie intake compared to the USDA Food Pyramid. [PUBMED]

Albert CM, Campos H, Stampfer MJ, Ridker PM, Manson JE, Willett WC, and Ma J. “Blood levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of sudden death.” N Engl J Med 346: 1113-1118 (2002)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This study indicates that a high levels of EPA and DHA in the blood is associated with a 80% reduction in sudden cardiac death. [PUBMED]

Johnston CS, Day CS, and Swan PD.  “Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy, young women.”  J Am Coll Nutr 21: 55-61 (2002)

Dr. Sears’ comments:  This study indicates the Zone Diet has greater thermogenesis than an isocaloric high carbohydrate diet. [PUBMED]

Dumesnil JG, Turgeon J, Tremblay A, Poirier P, Gilbert M, Gagnon L, St-Pierre S, Garneau C, Lemieux I, Pascot A, Bergeron J, and Despres JP.  “Effect of a low-glycaemic index--low-fat--high protein diet on the atherogenic metabolic risk profile of abdominally obese men.” Br J Nutr 86:557-568 (2001)

Dr. Sears’ comments:  This paper demonstrates very rapid positive changes in insulin levels and other blood lipid profiles after switching overweight men from the American Heart Association diet to the Zone Diet. [PUBMED]

Agus MS, Swain JF, Larson CL, Eckert EA, and Ludwig DS. “Dietary composition and physiologic adaptations to energy restriction.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 901-907 (2000)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This paper extends the initial observations on the benefits of the Zone Diet done at Harvard to overweight adults. [PUBMED]

Stoll AL, Severus WE, Freeman MP, Rueter S, Zboyan HA, Diamond E, Cress KK, and Marangell LB. “Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” Arch Gen Psychiatry 56: 407-412 (1999)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This trial with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates demonstrated that significant improvement could be observed in patients with bipolar depression when compared to a placebo consisting of olive oil. [PUBMED]

Skov AR, Toubro S, Ronn B, Holm L, and Astrup A.  “Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity.”  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23: 528-536 (1999)

Dr. Sears’ comments:  This study indicated that increasing protein at the expense of carbohydrate under ad libitum conditions generated greater fat loss. [PUBMED]

Wolfe BM and Piche LA.  “Replacement of carbohydrate by protein in a conventional-fat diet reduces cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in healthy normolipidemic subjects.”  Clin Invest Med 22: 140-1488 (1999

Dr. Sears’ comments:  This was one of the first papers to demonstrate that increasing protein at the expense of carbohydrate resulted in significant improvement of blood lipid profiles. [PUBMED]

Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico.  “Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial.” Lancet 354:447-455 (1999)

Dr. Sears’ comments:  This trial indicated that relatively low-dose EPA and DHA could provide a significant decrease in the survivor of patients with a previous heart attack. [PUBMED]

Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, Roberts SB, Agus MS, Swain JF, Larson CL, and Eckert EA. “Dietary High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity.”  Pediatrics 103: E26 (1999)

Dr. Sears’ comments: >This was the first paper to compare the Zone Diet to USDA Food Pyramid using overweight adolescents. [PUBMED]

Markovic TP, Campbell LV, Balasubramanian S, Jenkins AB, Fleury AC, Simons LA, and Chisholm DJ. “Beneficial effect on average lipid levels from energy restriction and fat loss in obese individuals with or without type 2 diabetes.” Diabetes Care 21: 695-700 (1998)

Dr. Sears’ comments: This open study indicated that using a calorie–restricted Zone Diet generates very significant benefits in the reduction of insulin resistance with a matter of days before any fat loss had occurred. [PUBMED]

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