Book Bibliographies

  • The Anti-Aging Zone
  • The Anti-Inflammation Zone
  • The OmegaRx Zone
  • The Soy Zone
  • The Zone
  • Toxic Fat

The Anti-Aging Zone Bibliography

The following references are from “The Anti-Aging Zone,” by Dr. Barry Sears, which was published in January 1999.

Chapter 1 — The Quest: Longer Life or Better Life

Austad SN. Why We Age. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY (1997)

Hayflick L. How and Why We Age. Ballantine Books, New York, NY (1994)

Moore TJ. Lifespan. Simon and Schuster, New York, NY (1993)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books, New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. Mastering the Zone. Regan Books, New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books, New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Food Blocks. Regan Books, New York, NY (1998)

Chapter 2 — Why Are We Living Longer?

Austad SN. Why We Age. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. (1997)

Browner WS, Westenhouse J, and Tice JA. “What if Americans ate less fat.” JAMA 265: 3285-3291 (1991)

Crawford M and Marsh D. The Driving Force. Harper and Row. (1989)

Eaton B, Shostak M, and Konner M. The Paleolithic Prescription. Harper and Row, New York, NY. (1988)

Finch CE. Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. (1990)
Gooch M and Stennett D. “Molecular basis of Alzheimer’s disease.” Am J of Health-System Pharmacists 53: 1545-1547 (1996)

Hayflick L. How and Why We Age. Ballantine Books, New York, NY. (1994)

Lamberts SWJ, van den Beld AW, and van der Lely A.J. “Endocrinology of aging.” Science 278: 419-424 (1997)

Lamb MJ. Biology of Aging. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY (1977)

Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, and Corey PN. “Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients.” JAMA 279: 1200-1205 (1998)

McKeown T. The Role of Medicine. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ (1979)

McNeill WH. Plagues and Peoples. Doubleday, New York, NY (1977)

Montagu JD. “Length of life in the ancient world: controlled study.” J Royal Soc Med 87: 25-26 (1994)

Moore TJ. Lifespan. Simon and Schuster, New York, NY. (1993)

Olshansky SJ, Caranes BA, and Cassel CK. “In search of Methuselah: estimating the upper limits to human longevity.” Science 250: 634-640 (1990)

Pearl R. The Rate of Living. Alfred Knopf, New York, NY (1928)

Preston SH. Mortality Patterns in National Populations. Academic Press, New York, NY. (1976)

Roses AD, Strittmatter WJ, Pericak-Vance MA, Corden EH, Saunders AM, and Schmechel DE. “Clinical application of apoplipoprotein E genotyping to Alzheimer’s disease.” Lancet 343: 1564-1565 (1994)

Roy, AK and Chatterjee, eds. Molecular Basis of Aging. Academic Press, Orlando FL (1984)

Saunders AM, Strittmatter WJ, Schmechel D, George-hyslop PH, Pericak-Vance MA, Joo SA, Rosi BL, Gusella JF, Crapper-MacLachlan DR, and Alberts MJ. “Association of apolipoprotein E allele e4 with late-onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.” Neurology 43: 1467-1472 (1993)

Schachter F, Faure-Delanef L, Guenot f, Rouger H, Froguel P, Lesueue-Ginot L, and Cohen D. “Genetic associations with human longevity at the apo E and ACE loci.” Nature Genetics 6: 29-32 (1994)

Seshardri S, Drachman D, and Lippy C. “Apoprotein E-e4 allele and lifetime risk of Alzheimer’s disease.” Arch Neurology 52: 1074-1079 (1995)

Takata H, Ishii T, Suzuki M, Sekiguchi S, and Iri H. “Influence of major histocompatibility complex region genes on human longevity among Okinawan-Japanese centenarians and nonagenarians.” Lancet ii: 824-826 (1992)

Wilson PWF, Myers RH, Larson MG, Ordovas JM, Wolf PA, and Schaefer EJ. “Apolipoprotein E alleles, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease.” JAMA 272: 1666-1671 (1994)

Chapter 3 — The Biological Markers of Aging

The Duke Longitudinal Studies of Normal Aging 1955-1980: An Overview of History, Design, and Findings. Springer Publishing Company, New York, NY. (1985)

Evans W and Rosenberg IH. Biomarkers. Simon and Shuster, New York, NY (1991)

Hayflick L. How and Why We Age. Ballatine Books, New York, NY (1994)

Older and Wiser: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. NIH publication no. 89-2797. U.S. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1989)

Timiras PS ed. Physiological Basis of Aging and Geriatrics, 2nd Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1994)

Timiras PS, Quay WB, and Vernakdakis A eds. Hormones and Aging. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (1995)

Chapter 4 — Hormones: The Short Course

De Groot LJ, Besser M, Burger HG, Jameson JL, Loriaux DL, Marshall JC, Odell WD, Potts JT, and Rubenstein AH eds. Endocrinology, 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA (1995)

Felig P, Baxter JD, and Frohman LA. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1995)

Norman AW and Litwack G. Hormones, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York, NY (1997)

Timiras PS, Quay WB, and Vernakdakis A eds. Hormones and Aging. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1995)

Wilson JD and Foster DW, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 8th ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA (1992)

Chapter 5 — Mechanisms of Aging: The Four Pillars of Aging

Albanell J, Lonardo F, Rusch V, Engelhardt M, Langenfeld J, Han W, Klimstra D, Venkatraman E, Moore MAS, and Dmitrovsky E. “High telomerase activity in primary lung cancers: association with increased cell proliferation rates and advanced pathologic stage.” J Nat Cancer Inst 89: 1609-1615 (1997)

Austad SN. Why We Age. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY (1997)

Banks DA and Fossel M. “Telomeres, cancer, and aging.” JAMA 278: 1345-1348 (1997)

Baynes JW and Monnier VM, eds. The Maillard Reaction in Aging, Diabetes, and Nutrition. Alan R Liss, New York, NY (1989)

Bernardis LL and Davis PJ. “Aging and the hypothalamus.” Physiology and Behavior 59: 523-536 (1996)

Bodnar AG, Ouellette M, Frolkis M, Holt SE, Chiu C-P, Morin GB, Harley CB, Shay JW, Lichsteiner S, and Wright WE. “Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase in normal human cells.” Science 349-352 (1998)

Cerami A. “Hypothesis: glucose as mediator of aging.” J Am Gerontol Soc 33: 626-634 (1985)

Cerami A, Vlassara H, and Browlee M. “Glucose and aging.” Sci Am 256: 90-96 (1987)

Dilman VM. “Age-associated elevation of hypothalamic threshold to feedback control, and its role in development, aging and disease.” Lancet ii 1211-1219 (1971)

Dilman VM. “Hypothalamic mechanisms of aging and of specific age pathology” Exp Gerontol 14: 287-300 (1979)

Dilman VM and Anisimov VN. “Effect of treatment with phenformin, diphenlhydantoin or L-dopa on life span and tumor incidence in C3H/Sn mice.” Gerontol 26: 241-246 (1980)

Fraga CG, Shigenaga MK, Park J-W, Degan P, and Ames BN. “Oxidative damage to DNA during aging: 8-hydroxy-2′-dexoxyguanosine in rat organ DNA and urine.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 4533-4537 (1990)

Harman D. “Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation biology.” J Gerontol 11: 298-309 (1956)

Hayflick L. “The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains.” Exp Cell Res 37: 614-636 (1965)

Hayflick L. “The cell biology of human aging.” Sci Am 242: 58-66 (1980)

Hayflick L. How and Why We Age. Ballantine Books, New York, NY (1994)

Hoos A, Hepp HH, Ahlert T, Bastert G, and Wallweiner D. “Telomerase activity correlates with tumor aggressiveness and reflects therapy effect in breast cancer.” Int J Cancer 79: 8-12 (1998)

Jarrett RJ and Kern H. “Glucose tolerance, age, and circulating insulin.” Lancet i 806-809 (1967)

Klingehutz AJ. “Telomerase activation and cancer.” J Mol Med 75: 45-49 (1997)

Kristal BS and Yu BP “An emerging hypothesis: synergistic induction of aging by free radicals and Maillard reaction.” J Gerontol Biol Sci 47: B107-B114 (1992)

Lamberts SWJ, van den Beld AW, and van der Lely A-J. “The endocrinology of aging.” Science 278: 419-424 (1997)

McLay RN, Freeman SM, Harlan RE, Ide CF, Kastin AJ, and Zadina JE. “Aging in the hippocampus: interrelated actions of neurotrophins and glucocorticoids.” Neurosci Behav Rev 21: 615-629 (1997)

Mobbs CV. “Genetic influences on glucose neurotoxicity, aging, and diabetes: a possible role for glucose hysteresis.” Genetica 91: 239-253 (1993)

Moller DE and Flier JS. “Insulin resistance–mechanisms syndromes, and implications.” New Engl J Med 325: 938-947 (1991)

Nakahara H, Kanno T, Inai Y, Utsumi K, Hiramatsu M, Mori A, and Packer L. “Mitochrondrial dysfunction in the senescence accelerated mouse (SAM).” Free Radical Biol and Med 24: 85-92 (1998)

Olovnikov AM. “Telomeres, telomerase, and aging: origin of the theory.” Exp Gerontology 31: 443-448 (1996)

Olshansky SJ, Carnes BA, and Cassel C. “In search of Methuselah: estimating the upper limits to human longevity.” Science 250: 634-639 (1990)

Oomura Y and Yoshimatsu H. “Neural network of glucose monitoring system.” K Autonom Nervous System 10: 359-372 (1984)

Parr T. “Insulin exposure controls the rate of mammalian aging.” Mech. Aging and Develop. 88: 75-82 (1996)

Parr T. “Insulin exposure and aging theory.” Gerontology 43: 182-200 (1997)

Ross R. “The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s.” Nature 362: 801-809 (1993)

Sapolsky RM, Krey LC, and McEwen BS. “The neuroendocrinology of stress and aging: the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis.” Endocrine Rev. 7: 284-301 (1986)

Smith MA, Taneda S, Richey PL, Miyata S, Yan S-D, Stern D, Sayre LM, Monnier VM, and Perry G. “Advanced Maillard reaction end products are associated with Alzheimer disease pathology.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 5710-5714 (1994)

Strehler BL. “Genetic instability as the primary cause of human aging.” Exp Gerontology 21: 283-319 (1986)

Yen T-C, Chen Y-S, King K-L, Yeh S-H, and Wei Y-H. “Liver mitochondria respiratory functions decline with age.” Biochem Biophys Res Comm 165: 994-1003 (1989)

Yu BP, ed. Free Radicals in Aging. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1993)

Chapter 6 — Guaranteed Anti Aging: Calorie Restriction

Austad SN. Why We Age. John Wiley. New York (1997)

Bodkin NL, Ortmeyer HK, and Hansen BC. “Long-term dietary restriction in older-aged rhesus monkeys: effects on insulin resistance.” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 50: B142-B147 (1995)

Cefalu WT, Wagner JD, Wang ZQ, Bell-Farrow AD, Collins J, Haskell D, Bechtold R, and Morgan T. “A study of caloric restriction and cardiovascular aging in cynomolgus monkeys: a potential model for aging research.” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 52: B98-B102 (1997)

Cerami A. “Hypothesis: Glucose as mediator of aging.” J Am Gerontol Soc 33: 626-634 (1985)

Dilman VM and Ansimov VN. “Effect of treatment with phenformin, diphenylhdydantoin or L-dopa on life span and tumor incidence in C3H/SN mice.” Gerontology 26: 241-246 (1980)

Duffy PH, Reuers RJ, Leakey JA, Nakamura K, Turturro A, and Hart RW. “Effect of chronic caloric restriction on physiological variables related to energy metabolism in male Fischer 344 rat.” Mech Aging Dev 48: 117-133 (1989)

Fernades G, Friend P, Yunis EJ, and Good RA. “Influence of dietary restriction on immunologic function and renal disease in (NZBxNZW) F1 mice.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 1500-1504 (1978)

Hayflick L. How and Why We Age. Ballantine Books. New York (1994)

Hansen BC, Ortmeyer HK, and Bodkin NL. “Prevention of obesity in middle-aged monkeys: food intake during body weight clamp.” Obesity Res. 3: 199S-204S (1995)

Hansen BC and Bodkin NL. “Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus by prevention of obesity in monkeys.” Diabetes 42: 1809-1814 (1993)

Holehan AM and Merry BJ. “The experimental manipulation of aging by diet.” Biol Rev 61: 329-368 (1986)

Ingram DK, Lane MA, Cutler RG, and Roth GS. “Longitudinal study of aging in monkeys: effects of diet restriction.” Neurobiology of Aging 14: 687-688 (1993)

Iwasaki K, Gleiser CA, Masoro EJ, McMahan CA, Seo E-J, and Yu BP. “The influence of dietary protein source on longevity and age-related disease processes of Fischer rats.” J Gerontol Biol Sci 43: B5-B12 (1988)

Kalant N, Stewart J, and Kaplan R. “Effect of diet restriction on glucose metabolism and insulin responsiveness in aging rats.” Mech. Aging and Develop. 46: 89-104 (1988)

Kemnitz JW, Roecker EB, Weindruch R, Elson DF, Baum ST, and Bergman RN. “Dietary restriction increases insulin sensitivity and lowers blood glucose in rhesus monkeys.” Am J. Physiol. 266: E540-E547 (1994)

Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R, Roecker EB, Crawford K, Kaufman PL, and Ershler WB. “Dietary restriction of adult male rhesus monkey: design, methodology, and preliminary findings from the first year of study.” J Gerontology 48: B17-B26 (1993)

Kim MJ, Roecher EB, and Weindruch R. “Influences of aging and dietary restriction on red blood cell density profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities in rhesus monkeys.” Exp Gerontology 28: 515-527 (1993)

Kim JW and Yu BP. “Characterization of age-related malondialdehyde oxidation. the effect of modulation by food restriction.” Mech Ageing Dev 50: 277-287 (1989)

Kristal BS and Yu BP “An emerging hypothesis: synergistic induction of aging by free radicals and Maillard reaction.” J Gerontol Biol Sci 47: B107-B114 (1992)

Kagawa Y. “Impact of westernization on the nutrition of Japanese: changes in physique, cancer, longevity, and centenarians.” Prev. Med. 7: 205-217 (1978)

Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R, Roecher EB, Crawford K, Kaufman PL, and Ershler WB. “Dietary restriction of adult male rhesus monkeys: design, methodology and preliminary findings for the first year of study.” J. Gerontology 48: B17-B26 (1993)

Laganiere S, and Yu BP. “Anti-lipoperoxidation action of food restriction.” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 45: 1185-1189 (1987)

Laganiere S and Yu BP. “Effect of chronic food restriction in aging rats: liver cytosolic antioxidants and related enzymes.” Mech Aging Dev 48: 221-226 (1989)

Lane MA, Ball SS, Ingram DK, Cutler RG, Engel J, Read V, and Roth GS. “Diet restriction in rhesus monkeys lowers fasting and glucose-stimulated glucoregulatory end points.” Am J Physiol 268: E941-E948 (1993)

Lane MA, Baer DJ, Rumpler WV, Weindruch R, Ingram DK, Tilmont EM, Cutler RG, and Roth GS. “Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.” Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 4159-4164 (1996)

Lane MA, Reznick AZ, Tilmont EM, Lanir A, Ball SS, Read V, Ingram DK, Cutler RG, and Roth GS. “Aging and food restriction alter some indices of bone metabolism in male rhesus monkeys.” J Nutr 125: 1600-1610 (1995)

Lane MA, Baer DJ, Rumpler WV, Weindruch R, Ingram DK, Tilmont EM, Cutler RG, and Roth GS. “Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 4159-4164 (1996)

Lane MA, Ingram DK, Ball SS, and Roth GS. “Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate: a biomarker of primate aging slowed by calorie restriction.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 2093-2096 (1997)

Lee DW and Yu BP. “Modulation of free radicals and superoxide dimutase by age and dietary restriction.” Aging 2: 357-362 (1991)

Maestroni GJM, Conti A, and Pierpaoli W. “Role of pineal gland in immunity: circadian synthesis and release of melatonin modulates the antibody response and antagonizes the immuno-suppressive effect of cortisterone.” J Neuroimmunol 13: 19-30 (1986)

Manson JE, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hennekens CH and Speizer FE. “Body weight and mortality among women.” New Engl J Med 333: 667-687 (1995)

Masoro EJ, Yu BP, and Bertrand HA. “Action of food restriction in delaying the aging process.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 4239-4241 (1982)

Masoro EJ, Katz MS, and McMahan CA. “Evidence for the glycation hypothesis of aging from the food-restricted rodent model.” J Gerontol 44: B20-B22 (1989)

Masoro EJ. “Assessment of nutritional components in prolongation of life and health by diet.” Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 193: 31-34 (1990)

Masoro EJ, McCarter RJM, Katz MS, and McMahan, “Dietary restriction alters characteristics of glucose fuel use.” J Gerontol Biol Sci 47: B202-b208 (1992)

Masoro EJ. “Retardation of aging process by food restriction: an experimental tool.” Am J Clin Nutr 55:1250S-1252 (1992)

Masoro EJ. “Antiaging action of caloric restriction: endocrine and metabolic aspects.” Obesity Res 3: 241S-247S (1995)

McCarter R, Masoro EJ, and Yu BP. “Does food restriction retard aging by reducing the metabolic rate?” Am J Physiol 248: E486-E490 (1985)

McCarter RJ and Palmer J. “Energy metabolism and aging: a lifelong study of Fischer 344 rats.” Am J Physiol 263: E448-E452 (1992)

McCay CM, Crowell MF, and Maynard LA. “The effect of retarded growth upon the length of life span upon the ultimate body size.” J Nutr 10: 63-79 (1935)

Means LW, Higgins JL, and Fernandez TJ. “Mid-life onset of dietary restriction extends life and prolongs cognitive functioning.” Physiol Behav 54: 503-508 (1993)

Meites J. “Aging: hypothalamic catecholamines, neuroendocrine-immune interactions, and dietary restriction.” Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 195: 304-311 (1990)

Melov S, Hinerfeld D, Esposito L, and Wallace DC. “Multi-organ characterization of mitochrondrial genomic rearrangements in ad libitum and caloric restricted mice show striking somatic mitochrondrial DNA rearrangements with age.” Nucleic Acids Res 25: 974-982 (1997)

Merry BJ and Holehan AM. “Effects of diet on aging.” in Physiological Basis of Aging and Geriatrics. Timiras PS ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL pp. 285-310 (1994)

Monnier VM. “Minireview: nonenzymatic glycosylation, the Maillard reaction and the aging process.” J Gerontol Biol Sci 45: B105-B111 (1990)

Nelson JF, Karelus K, Bergman MD, and Felicio LS. “Neuroendocrine involvement in aging; evidence from studies of reproductive aging and caloric restriction.” Neurobiology of Aging 16: 837-843 (1995)

Parr T. “Insulin exposure controls the rate of mammalian aging.” Mech. Aging and Develop. 88: 75-82 (1996)

Parr T. “Insulin exposure and aging theory.” Gerontology 43: 182-200 (1997)

Ramsey JJ, Roecker EB, Weindruch R, and Kemnitz JW. “Energy expenditure of adult male rhesus monkeys during the first 30 mo of dietary restriction.” Am J Physiol 272: E901-E907 (1997)

Reaven GM and Reaven EP. “Prevention of age-related hypertriglyceridemia by caloric restriction and exercise training in the rat.” Metab 30: 982-986(1981)

Sohal RS, Ku HH, Agarwal S, Forster MJ, and Lal H. “Oxidative damage, mitochrondial oxidant generation and antioxidant defenses during aging and in response to food restriction in the mouse.” Mech Aging Dev 74: 121-133 (1994)

Sohal RS and Sohal BH. “Hydrogen peroxide release by mitochondria increases during aging.” Mech Aging Dev 57: 187-202 (1991)

Sohal RS. “Hydrogen peroxide production by mitochondria may be a biomarker of aging.” Mech Aging Dev 60: 189-198 (1991)

Sohal RS and Weindruch R. “Oxidative stress, caloric restriction, and aging.” Science 273: 59-63 (1996)

Sonntag WE, Lenham JE, and Ingram RL. “Effects of aging and dietary restriction on tissue protein synthesis: relationship to plasma insulin-like growth factor 1.” J Gerontol 47: B159-B163 (1992)

Trounce I, Byrne E, and Marzuki S. “Decline in skeletal muscle mitrochrondrial respiratory chain function: possible factor in aging.” Lancet i 637-639 (1989)

Venkatraman JT and Fernades G. “Mechanisms of delayed autoimmune disease in B/W mice by Omega-3 lipids and food restriction.” in Nutrition and Immunology Chandra RK ed. ARTS, St. John’s Newfoundland. pp. 309-323 (1992)

Walford RL. Maximum Lifespan. W.W. Norton, New York, NY (1983)

Walford RL. The 120-Year Diet. Simon and Shuster, New York, NY. (1986)

Weindruch R. and Walford RL. The retardation of aging and disease by dietary restriction. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL (1988)

Walford RL, Harris SB, and Gunion MW. “The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol and blood pressure in humans.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 11533-11537 (1992)

Walford RL and Walford L. The Anti-Aging Plan. Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, NY (1994)

Ward WF. “Food restriction enhances the proteolytic capacity of the aging liver.” J Gerontol 43: B121-B124 (1988)

Weed JL, Lane MA, Roth GS, Speer DL, and Ingram DK. “Activity measures in rhesus monkeys on long-term calorie restriction.” Physiol Behav 62: 97-103 (1997)

Weindruch R. “Caloric restriction and aging.” Sci Am 274: 46-52 (1996)

Wolff SP, Bascal ZA, and Hunt JV. “Autooxidative glycosylation: free radicals and glycation” in The Maillard Reaction in Aging, Diabetes, and Nutrition. Baynes JW and Monnier VM, eds. Alan R. Liss, New York pp. 259-273 (1989)

Yu BP. “Food restriction research: past and present status.” Rev Biol Res in Aging 4: 349-371 (1990)

Yu BP, Lee DW, Marler CG, and Choi J-H. “Mechanism of food restriction: protection of cellular homeostasis.” Proc Soc Exp Bio Med 193: 13-15 (1990)

Yu BP. “How diet influences the aging process of the rat.” Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 205: 97-105 (1994)

Chapter 7 — The Zone Diet: Calorie Restriction Without Hunger or Deprivation

Eaton B, Shostak M, and Konner M. The Paleolithic Prescription. Harper and Row, New York, NY. (1988)

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, and Taylor RH. “Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 362-366 (1981)

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Vukson S, Brighenti F, Cunnane SC, Rao AV, Jenkins AL, Buckley G, and Singer W. “Nibbling versus gorging: metabolic advantages of increased meal frequency.” N Engl J Med 321: 929-934 (1989)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books, New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. Mastering the Zone. Regan Books, New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books, New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Food Blocks. Regan Books, New York, NY (1998)

Westphal SA, Gannon MC, and Nutrall FQ. “Metabolic response to glucose ingested with various amounts of protein.” Am J Clin Nutr 62: 267-272 (1990)

Wolever TMS. “Relationship between dietary fiber content and composition in foods and the glycemic index.” Am J Clin Nutr 51: 72-75 (1990)

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AA, and Josse RG. “The glycemic index: methodology and chemical implications.” Am J Clin Nutr 54: 846-854 (1991)

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Collier GR, Lee R, Wong GS, and Josse RG. “Metabolic response to test meals containing different carbohydrate foods: relationship between rate of digestion and plasma insulin response.” Nutr Res 8: 573-581 (1988)

Young VR. “Protein and amino acid requirements in humans.” Scand J Nutr 36: 47-56 (1992)

Young VR, Bier DM, and Pellert PL. “A theoretical basis for increasing current estimates of the amino acid requirements in adult men with experimental support.” Am J Clin Nutr 50: 80-92 (1989)

Chapter 8 — Type 2 Diabetes: Canaries in the Coal Mine of Aging

American Diabetes Association. “Economic consequences of diabetes mellitus in the U.S. in 1997.” (1997)

American Diabetes Association. “Diabetes: 1996 Vital Statistics.” (1996)

Chen YD, Coulston AM, Ming-Yue Z, Hollenbeck CB, and Reaven GM. “Why do low-fat high-carbohydrate diets accentuate postprandial lipemia in patients with NIDDM?” Diabetes Care 18: 10-16 (1995)

Garg A, Grudy SM, and Unger RH. “Comparison of effects of high and low carbohydrate diets on plasma lipoproteins and insulin sensitivity in patients with mild NIDDM.” Diabetes 41: 1278-1285 (1992)

Garg A, Bantle JP, Henry RR, Coulston AM, Griven KA, Raatz SK, Brinkley L, Chen I, Grundy SM, Huet BA, and Reaven GM. “Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.” JAMA 271: 1421-1428 (1994)

Golay A, Allaz AF, Mored Y, de Tonnac N, Tankova S, and Reaven G. ” Similar weight loss with low-or high-carbohydrate diets.” Am J Clin Nutr 63: 174-178 (1996)

Kemnitz JW, Roecker EB, Weindruch R, Elson DF, Baum ST, and Bergman RN. “Dietary restriction increases insulin sensitivity and lower blood glucose in rhesus monkeys.” Am J Physiol 266: E540-E547 (1994)

van Liew JB, David FB, Davis PJ, Noble B, and Bernardis. “Calorie restriction decreases microalbuminuria associated with aging in barrier-raised Fischer 344 rats.” Am J Physiol 263: F554-F561 (1992)

Markovic TP, Jenkins AB, Campbell LV, Furler SM, Kragen EW, and Chisholm DJ. “The determinants of glycemic responses to diet restriction and weight loss in obesity and NIDDM.” Diabetes Care 21: 687-694 (1998)

Markovic TP, Fleury AC, Campbell LV, Simons LA, Balasubramanian S, Chisholm DJ, and Jenkins AB. “Beneficial effect on average lipid levels from energy restriction and fat loss in obese individuals with or without Type 2 diabetes.” Diabetes Care 21: 695-700 (1998)

Parillo M, Rivellese AA, Ciardullo AV, Capaldo B, Giacco A, Genovese S, and Riccardi G. “A high-monounsaturated-fat/low carbohydrate diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.” Metab. 41: 1373-1378 (1992)

Rasmussen OW, Thomsen C, Hansen KW, Vesterlund M, Winther E, and Hermansen K.” Effects on blood pressure, glucose, and lipid levels of a high-monounsaturated fat diet compared with a high-carbohydrate diet in non-insulin dependent subjects.” Diabetes Care 16: 1565-1571 (1993)

Robin RJ, Altman WM, and Mendelson DN. “Health care expenditures for people with diabetes mellitus.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 78: 809A-809F (1992)

Chapter 9 — Exercise: Another Drug to Alter Hormones

Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Leon AS, Jacobs DR, Montoye HJ, Sallis JF, and Paffenbarger RS. “Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical effort.” Med Sci Sports Exerc 25: 71-80 (1993)

Alessio HM. “Exercise-induced oxidative stress.” Med Sci Sports Exercise 25: 218-224 (1993)

Bernstein L, Henderson BE, Hanisch R, Sullivan-Halley J, and Ross RK. “Physical exercise and reduced risk of breast cancer in young women.” J Natl Cancer Inst 86: 1403-1408 (1994)

Blair SN, Kohl HW, Paffenbarger RS, Clark DG, Cooper KH, and Gibbons LW. “Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy men and women.” JAMA 262: 2395-2401 (1989)

Blair SN, Kohl HW, Gordon NF, and Paffenbarger RS. “How much physical activity is good for health?” Ann Rev Pub Health 13: 99-126 (1992)

Brown RL. The 10-Minute LEAP. Regan Books, New York, NY (1998)

Cooper KH. Antioxidant Revolution. Thomas Nelson, Nashville, TN (1994)

Cumming DC. “Hormones and athletic performance.” in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 3rd edition. Felig P, Baxter JD, and Frohman LA eds. McGraw-HIll, New York, NY (1995)

D’Avanzo B, Nanni O, La Vecchia C, Franceshchi S, Negri E, Giacosa A, Conti E, Montella M, Talamini R, and Cecarli A. “Physical activity and breast cancer risk.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5: 155-160 (1996)

Felig P and Wahren J. “Fuel homeostasis in exercise.” N Engl J Med 293: 1078-1084 (1975)

Fiatarone MA, Marks EC, Ryan ND, Meredith CN, Lipsitz LA, and Evans WJ. “High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians: effects on skeletal muscle.” JAMA 263: 3029-3034 (1990)

Folsom AR, Jacobs DR, Wagenknecht LE,Winkart SP, Yunis C, Hilner JE, Savage PJ, Smith DE, and Flack JM. “Increase in fasting insulin and glucose over seven years with increasing weight and inactivity of young adults.” Am J Epidemiol 144: 235-246 (1996)

Friedenreich CM and Rohan TE. “Physical activity and risk of breast cancer.” Eur J Canc Prev 4:145-151 (1995)

Frontera WR, Meredith C, O’Reilly K, Knuttgen H, and Evans W. “Strength conditioning in older men: skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improved function.” J Appl Physiol 64: 1038-1044 (1988)

Galbo H, Holst JJ, and Christensen NJ. “Glucagon and plasma catecholamine response to graded and prolonged exercise in man.” J Appl Physiol 38: 70-76 (1975)

Galbo H, Holst JJ, and Christensen NJ. “The effect of different diets of insulin on the hormonal response to prolonged exercise.” Acta Physiol Scand 107: 19-32 (1979)

Goldbourt U. “Physical activity, long-term CHD mortality and longevity: a review of studies over the last 30 years.” in Nutrition and Fitness: Metabolic and Behavioral Aspects to Health and Disease. Simopoulos AP and Pavlou KN eds. 82: 229-239 (1997)

Helmrich SP, Ragland DR, Leung RW, and Paffenbarger RS. “Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.” N Engl J Med 325: 147-152 (1991)

Holloszy JO, Schultz J, Kusnierkiewicz J, Hagberg JM, and Ehsani AA. “Effects of exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.” Acta Med Scand 711: 55-65 (1996)

Kraemer WJ. “Influence of the endocrine system on resistance training adaptations.” National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal 14: 47-53 (1992)

Lee I-M, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, and Paffenbarger RS. “Chronic disease in former college students. Body weight and mortality: a 27-year follow-up of middle-aged men.” JAMA 270: 2823-2828 (1990)

Lee I-M and Paffenbarger RS. “Change in body weight and longevity.” JAMA 268: 2045-2049 (1992)

Lee I-M, Hsieh C-C, and Paffenbarger RS. “Chronic disease in former college students. Exercise intensity and longevity in men.” JAMA 273: 1179-1184 (1995)

Leon AS, Connett J, Jacobs, DR, and Rauramaa R. “Leisure-time physical activity levels and risk of coronary heart disease and death: the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.” JAMA 258: 2388-2395 (1987)

Laron Z and Rogal AD eds. Hormones and Sport. Raven Press, New York, NY (1989)

Hein HO, Saudicani P, and Gyntelberg F. “Physical fitness or physical activity as a predictor of ischaemic heart disease: a 17-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study.” J Int Med 232: 471-479 (1992)

Manson JE, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Krolewski AS, Rosner B, Hennekens, CH, and Speizer FE. “Physical activity and incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in women.” Lancet 338: 774-778 (1991)

Manson JE, Colditz GA, and Stampfer MJ. “Parity, ponderosity, and the paradox of a weight-preoccupied society.” JAMA 271: 1788-1790 (1994)

Mayer-Davis EJ, D’Agostino R, Darter AJ, Haffner SM, Rewers MJ, Saad M, and Bergman RN. “Intensity and amount of physical activity in relation to insulin sensitivity.” JAMA 279: 669-674 (1998)

Meydani M and Evans WJ. “Free radicals, exercise, and aging.” in Free Radicals in Aging. Yu BP ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL pp. 183-204 (1993)

Paffenbarger RS, Wing AL, and Hyde RT. “Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni.” Am J Epidemiology 108: 161-175 (1978)

Paffenbarger RS and Hale WE. “Work activity and coronary heart mortality.” N Engl J Med 292: 1109-1114 (1970)

Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL, and Hsieh C-C. “Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni.” New Engl J Med 314: 605-614 (1986)

Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, and Wing AL. “Physical activity and incidence of cancer in diverse populations: A preliminary report.” Am J Clin Nutr 45: 312-317 (1987)

Paffenbarger RS and Olsen E. Lifefit. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL (1996)

Papadakis MA, Grady D, Black D, Tierney MJ, Gooding GAW, Schambelan M, and Grunfeld C. “Growth hormone replacement is healthy older men improves body composition but not functional ability.” Ann Intern Med 124: 708-716 (1996)

Rauramaa R, Salonen JT, Seppanen K, Salonen R, Venalainen JM, Ihanaien M, and Rissanen V. “Inhibition of platelet aggregability by moderate-intensity physical exercise: a randomized clinical trial in overweight men.” Circulation 74: 939-944 (1986)

Rogozkin VA. Metabolism of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1991)

Thune I, Brenn T, Lund E, and Garrd M. “Physical activity and the risk of breast cancer.” New Engl J Med 336: 1269-1275 (1997)

Viru A. Hormones in Muscular Activity: Vol I-Hormonal Ensemble in Exercise. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL ( 1983)

Viru A. Hormones in Muscular Activity: Vol II-Adaptive Effects of Hormones in Exercise. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL ( 1983)

Viru A. Adaptation in Sports Training. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL ( 1995)

Weltman A, Weltman JY, Schurrer R, Evans WS, Veldhuis JD, and Rogal AD. “Endurance training amplifies the pulsatile release of growth hormone: effects of training intensity.” J Appl Physiol 72: 2188-2196 (1992)

Willett WC, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosher B, Spelzar FE, and Hennekens CH. “Weight , weight change, and coronary heart disease in women: risk within the ‘normal’ weight range.” JAMA 273: 461-465 (1995)

Wood PD and Haskell WL. “The effect of exercise on plasma high-density lipoproteins.” Lipids 14: 417-427 (1979)

Wood PD, Stefanick ML, Williams PT, and Haskell WT. “The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet, with or without exercise in overweight men and women.” New Engl J Med 319: 461-466 (1991)

Yamanouchi K, Shinozaki T, Chidada K, Nishidawa T, Ito K, Shimizu S, Ozawa N, Suzuki Y, Maeno H, and Kato K. “Daily walking combined with diet therapy is useful means for obese NIDDM patients not only to reduce body weight but also to improve insulin sensitivity.” Diabetes Care 18: 775-778 (1995)

Zawadzki KM, Yaspelkis BB, and Ivy JL. “Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise.” J. Appl. Physiol. 72: 1854-1859 (1992)

Chapter 10 — The Brain: It’s a Terrible Thing to Waste

Benson H. The Relaxation Response. William Morrow, New York, NY. ((1975)

Benson H. Timeless Healing. Scribners, New York, NY (1996)

Blaylock RL. Excitotoxins. Health Press, Santa Fe, NM (1995)

Carrington P. The Book of Meditation. Element Books, Boston, MA (1998)

DeKosy S, Scheef S, and Cotman C. “Elevated corticosterone levels. A possible cause of reduced axon sprouting in aged animals.” Neuroendocrinology 38: 33-38 (1984)

Goya L, Rivero R, and Pascual-Leone AM. “Glucocorticoids, stress, and aging.” in Hormones and Aging. Timiras PS, Quay WB, and Vernadakis A. eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 249-266 (1995)

Homer H, Packan D, and Sapolsky RM. “Glucocorticoids inhibit glucose transport in cultured hippocampal neurons and glia.” Neuroendocrinology 52: 57-63 (1990)

Jacobson L and Sapolsky RM. “The role of the hippocampus in feedback regulation of the hypthalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.” Endocrine Rev 12: 118-134 (1991)

Katzman R and Jackson JE. “Alzheimer disease: basic and clinical advances.” J Am Geriatrics Soc 39: 516-525 (1991)

Kerr D, Campbell L, Applegate M, Brodish A, and Landfield PW. “Chronic stress-induced acceleration of electrophysiologic and morphometric biomarkers of hippocampal aging.” J Neurosci 11: 1316-1324 (1991)

Khalsa DS. Brain Longevity. Warner Books, New York, NY (1997)

Landfield PW, Waymire JC, and Lynch G. “Hippocampal aging and adrenocorticoids: a quantitative correlation.” Science 202: 1098-1102 (1978)

Newcomer JW, Craft S, Hershey T, Askins K and Bardgett ME. “Glucocorticoid-induced impairment in declarative memory performance in adult humans.” J Neurosci 14: 2047-2053 (1994)

Roses AD, Strittmatter WJ, Pericak-Vance MA, Corden EH, Saunders AM, and Schmechel DE. “Clinical application of apoplipoprotein E genotyping to Alzheimer’s disease.” Lancet 343: 1564-1565 (1994)

Sapolsky RM, Krey L, and McEwen BS. “Stress down regulates corticosterone receptors in a site-specific manner in the brain.” Endocrinology 114: 287-292 (1984)

Sapolsky RM, Krey L, and McEwen BS. “Glucocorticoid-sensitve hippocampal neurons are involved in terminating the adrenocorticol stress response.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 6174-6177 (1984)

Sapolsky RM, Krey L, and McEwen BS. “Prolonged glucocorticoid exposure reduces hippocampal neuron number: implications for aging.” J Neurosci 5: 1222-1227 (1985)

Sapolsky RM, Packan DR, and Vale WW. “Glucocorticoid toxicity in the hippocampus: in vitro demonstration.” Brain Res 453: 367-371 (1988)

Sapolsky RM, Uno H, Rebert CS, and Finch CE. “Hippocampal damage associated with prolonged glucocorticoid exposure in primates.” J Neurosci 10: 2897-2902 (1990)

Sapolsky RM. Stress, the Aging Brain and the Mechanisms of Neuron Death. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1992)

Saunders AM, Strittmatter WJ, Schmechel D, George-Hyslop PH, Pericak-Vance MA, Joo SH, Rosi BL, Gusella JF, Carpper-MacLachlan DR, and Alberts MJ.
“Association of apolipoprotein E allele e4 with late-onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.” Neurology 43: 1467-1472 (1993)

Stein-Behrens BA, Elliott EM, Miller CA, Schlling JW, Newcombe R, and Sapolsky RM. “Glucocorticoids exacerbate kainic acid-induced extracellular accumulation of excitatory amino acids in the rat hippocampus.” J Neurochem 58: 1730-1735 (1992)

Sheline Y, Wang PW, Godo MH, Csernansky JB, and Vannier MW. “Hippocampal atrophy in recurrent major depression.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 3908-3913 (1996)

Terry RD, DeTeresa R, and Hansen LA. “Neocortical cell counts in the normal adult aging.” Ann Neurology 21: 530-539 (1987)

van Eekelen JA and De Kloet ER. “Co-localization of brain corticosteroid receptors in the rat hippocampus.” Prog Histochem Cytochem 26:250-258 (1992)

Vernadakis A. “Effects of hormones on neural tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies.” in Hormones and Aging. Tim iras PS, Quay WB, and Vernadakis A. eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 291-314 (1995)

Virgin CE, Hu TP, Packan DR, Tombaugh GC, Yang SH, Horner HC, and Sapolsky RM. “Glucocortoids inhibit glucose transport and glutamate uptake in hippocampal astrocytes: implications for glucocorticoid toxicity.” J Neurochem 57: 1422-1428 (1991)

Wooley C, Gould E, and McEwen BS. “Exposure to excess glucocorticoids alters dendritic morphology of adult hippocampal pyramidal neurons.” Brain Res 531: 225-231 (1990)

Chapter 11 — Anti-Aging Zone Lifestyle: The Self-Care Pyramid

Benson H. The Relaxation Response. William Morrow, New York, NY. ((1975)

Benson H. Timeless Healing. Scribners, New York, NY (1996)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books, New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. Mastering the Zone. Regan Books, New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books, New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Food Blocks. Regan Books, New York, NY (1998)

Scholsberg S and Neporent L. Fitness for Dummies. IDG Books, Foster City, CA (1996)

Chapter 12 — Your Anti-Aging Zone Report Card: The Tests You Want to Pass

Allred JB. “Too much of a good thing? An over-emphasis on eating low-fat food may be contributing to the alarming increase in overweight amounts of US adults.” J Am Dietetic Assoc 95: 417-418 (1995)

Colditz GA. “Economic costs of obesity.” Am J Clin Nutr 55: 503S-507S (1992)

Corti M-C, Guraink JM, Saliva ME, Harris T, Field TS, Wallace RB, Berkman LF, Seeman TE, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH, and Havlik RJ. “HDL cholesterol predicts coronary heart disease mortality in older persons.” JAMA 274:539-544 (1995)

Drexel H, Amann FW, Beran J, Rentsch K, Candinas R, Muntwyler J, Leuthy A, Gasser T, and Follath F. “Plasma triglycerides and three lipoprotein cholesterol fractions are independent predictors of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis.” Circulation 90:2230-2235 (1992)

Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH, O’Donnell CH, Breslow JL, and Buring JE. “Fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and risk of myocardial infarction.” Circulation 96: 2520-2525 (1997)

Golay A, Allaz AF, Mored Y, de Tonnac N, Tankova S, and Reaven G. ” Similar weight loss with low-or high-carbohydrate diets.” Am J Clin Nutr 63: 174-178 (1996)

Gould KL, Ornish D, Scherwitz L, Brown S., Edens RP, Hess MJ, Mullani Z, Bolomey L, Dobbs F, Armstrong WT, Merritt T, Potts T, Sparler S, and Billings J. “Changes in myocardial perfusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography after long-term, intense risk factor modification.” JAMA 274: 894-901 (1995)

Gould KL. “Very low-fat diets for coronary heart disease: perhaps, but which one?” JAMA 275: 1402-1403 (1996)

Knopp RH, Walden CE, Retzlaff BM, McCann BS, Dowdy AA, Albers JJ, Gey GO, and Copper MN. “Long-term cholesterol-lowering effects of 4 fat-restricted diets in hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic men.” JAMA 278: 1509-1515 (1997)

Knopp RH “Serum lipids after a low-fat diet.” JAMA 279: 1345-1346 (1998)

Kuczmarshi RJ, Flegal KM, Campbell, SM and Joshnson CL. “Increasing prevalence of overweight among U.S. adults.” JAMA 272: 205-211 (1994)

Hamm P, Shekelle RB, and Stamler J. “Large fluctuations in body weight during young adulthood and 25-years risk of coronary death in men.” Am J Epidemiology 129: 312-318 (1989)

Heini AF and Weinsier RL. “Divergent trends in obesity and fat intake patterns: an American paradox.” Am J Med 102: 259-264 (1997)

Kaczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, Comptede SM, Johnson CL. “Increasing prevalence of overweight among U.S. adults.” JAMA 272: 205-239 (1994)

Laws A, King AC, Haskell WL, and Reaven GM. “Relation of fasting plasma insulin concentrations to high density lipoprotein cholesterol and trigylceride concentrations in man.” Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 11: 1636-1642 (1991)

Lee IM and Paffenbarger RS. “Change in body weight and longevity.” JAMA 268: 2045-2049 (1992)

Lichtenstein AH and van Horn L. “Very low fat diets.” Circulation 98: 935-939 (1998)

Markovic TP, Fleury AC, Campbell LV, Simons LA, Balasubramanian S, Chisholm DJ, and Jenkins AB. “Beneficial effect on average lipid levels from energy restriction and fat loss in obese individuals with or without Type 2 diabetes.” Diabetes Care 21: 695-700 (1998)

Markovic TP, Furler SM, Jenkins AB, Kraegen EW, Campbell LV, and Chisholm DJ. “The determinants of glycemic responses to diet restriction and weight loss in obesity and NIDDM.” Diabetes Care 21: 687-694 (1988)

Patch JR, Miesenbock G, Hopferwieser T, Muhlberger V, Knapp E, Dunn JK, Gotto AM, and Patsch W. “Relation of triglyceride metabolism and coronary artery disease.” Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 12:1336-1345 (1992)

Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, McLanahan SM, Kirkeeide RL, Brand RJ, and Gould KL. “Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?” Lancet 336: 129-133 (1990)

Thompson PD. “More on low-fat diets.” New Engl J Med 338:1623-1624 (1998)

Willett WC, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Speizer FE, and Hennekens CH. “Weight, weight change, and coronary heart disease in women.” JAMA 273:461-465 (1995)

Chapter 13 – Hormones: The Long Course

De Groot LJ, Besser M, Burger HG, Jameson JL, Loriaux DL, Marshall JC, Odell WD, Potts JT, and Rubenstein AH eds. Endocrinology, 3rd edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA (1995)

Felig P, Baxter JD, and Frohman LA. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1995)

Norman AW and Litwack G. Hormones, 2nd Edition. Academic Press, New York, NY (1997)

Pinkey JA, Stenhower CD, Coppack SW, and Yudkin JS. “Endothelial cell dysfunction: cause of insulin resistance syndrome.” Diabetes 46: S9-S13 (1997)

Timiras PS, Quay WB, and Vernakdakis A., eds. Hormones and Aging. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (1995)

Timiras PS, ed. Physiological Basis of Aging and Geriatrics, 2nd Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1994)

Wilson JD and Foster DW eds. W.B. Saunders Company, Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 8th Edition. Philadelphia, PA. (1992)

Chapter 14 — Insulin: Your Passport to Accelerated Aging

Austin MA, Breslow JL, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Willett WC, and Krauss RM. “Low density lipoprotein subclass patterns and risk of myocardial infarction.” JAMA 260: 1917-1920 (1988)

Austin MA. “Plasma triglcyceride and coronary heart disease.” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 11: 2-14 (1991)

Baba T and Neugebauer S. “The link between insulin resistance and hypertension: effects of antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic drugs on insulin sensitivity.” Drugs 47: 383-404 (1994)

Bao W, Srinivasan SR, and Berenson GS. “Persistent elevation of plasma insulin levels is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in children and young adults.” Circulation 93: 54-59 (1996)

Black HR. “The coronary artery disease paradox. The role of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance and implications for therapy.” J. Cardiovascular Pharmacol. 15: 26S-38S (1990)

Brandes J. “Insulin induced overeating in the rat.” Physiol Rev 18: 1095-1102 (1977)

Brenner RR. “Nutrition and hormonal factors influencing desaturation of essential fatty acids.” Prog Lipid Res 20: 41-48 (1982)

Bruning PF, Bonfrer JMG, van Noord PAH, Hart AAM, de Jong-Bakker M, and Nooijen WJ. “Insulin resistance and breast cancer risk.” Int J Cancer 52: 511-516 (1992)

Busse R and Flemining I. “Endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis.” J Vas Res 33: 181-194 (1996)

Bonora E, Willeit J, Kiechl S, Oberhollenzer F, Egger G, Bonadonna R, and Meggeo M. “U-shaped and J-shaped relationships between serum insulin and coronary heart disease in the general population.” Diabetes Care 21: 221-230 (1998)

Campbell LV, Marmot PE, Dyer JA, Borkman M, and Storlien LH. “The high-monounsaturated fat diet as a practical alternative for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.” Diabetes Care 17: 177-182 (1994)

Cincott AH, Tozzo E, and Scislowski PWD. “Bromocriptine/SKF 38393 treatment ameliorates obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction in obese (ob/ob) mice.” Life Sci 61: 951-956 (1997)

Coresh J, Kwiterovich PO, and Smith HH. “Association of plasma triglyceride concentration and LDL particle diameter, density, and chemico-composition with premature coronary artery disease.” J Lipid Res 34: 1687-1697 (1993)

Corti M-C, Guraink JM, Saliva ME, Harris T, Field TS, Wallace RB, Berkman LF, Seeman TE, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH, and Havlik RJ. “HDL cholesterol predicts coronary heart disease mortality in older persons.” JAMA 274:539-544 (1995)

Coulston AM, Liu GC, and Reaven GM. “Plasma glucose, insulin and lipid responses to high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets in normal humans.” Metabol 32: 52-56 (1983)

Davignon J and Cohn JS. “Triglycerides: a risk factor for coronary heart disease.” Atherosclerosis 124: S57-S64 (1996)

Dek SB and Walsh MF. “Leukotrienes stimulate insulin release from rat pancreas.” Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 81: 2199-2202 (1985)

Depres J-P, Lamarche B. Mauriege P, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, Moorjani S, and Lupien P-J. “Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease.” New Engl J Med 334: 952-957 (1996)

Drexel H, Amann FW, Beran J, Rentsch K, Candinas R, Muntwyler J, Leuthy A, Gasser T, and Follath F. “Plasma triglycerides and three lipoprotein cholesterol fractions are independent predictors of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis.” Circulation 90:2230-2235 (1992)

Dreon D, Fernstrom HA, Miller B, and Krauss RM. “Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and lipoprotein response to a reduced-fat diet in men.” FASEB J 8: 121-126 (1994)

Duimetiere P, Eschwege E, Papoz G, Richard JL, Claude JR, and Rosselin G. “Relationship of plasma insulin to the incidence of myocardial infraction and coronary heart disease mortality in a middle-aged population.” Diabetologia 19: 205-210 (1980)

Ducimetiere P, Richard JL, and Cambrien I. “The pattern of subcutaneous fat distribution in middle-aged men and risk of coronary heart disease.” Int J Obesity 10: 229-240 (1986)

Eschwege E, Richard JL, Thibult N, Ducimetiere P, Warsnot JM, Claude JR, and Rosselin GE. “Coronary heart disease mortality in relation with diabetes, blood glucose, and plasma insulin levels.” Horm Metab Res Suppl 15: 41-46 (1985)

Fanaian M, Szilasi J, Storlien L, and Calvert GD. “The effect of modified fat diet on insulin resistance and metabolic parameters in type II diabetes.” Diabetologia 39: A7 (1996)

Farquhar JW, Frank A, Gross RC, and Reaven GM. “Glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to high and low carbohydrate diets in man.” J Clin Invest 45: 1648-1656 (1966)

Fontbonne A, Eschwege E, Cambien F, Ducimetiere P, Thibult N, Warnet JM, Claude JR, and Rosselin GE. “Hypertriglyceridemia as a risk factor of coronary heart disease in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes: results from the 11-year follow-up of the Paris Prospective Study.” Diabetologia 32: 300-304 (1989)

Fontbonne A. “Why can high insulin levels indicate a risk for coronary heart disease.” Diabetologia 37: 953-955 (1994)

Foster D. “Insulin resistance-a secret killer?” N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 733-734 (1989)

Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH, O’Donnell CJ, Breslow JL, and Buring JE. “Fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins and risk of myocardial infarction.” Circulation 96: 2520-2525 (1997)

Gertler M, Leetma HE, Saluste E, Rosenberger JL, and Guthrie RG. “Ischemic heart disease, insulin, carbohydrate and lipid inter-relationship.” Circulation 46: 103-111 (1972)

Giovannucci E. “Insulin and colon cancer.” Cancer Causes and Control 6: 164-179 (1995)

Gillman MW, Cupples A, Millen BE, Ellison C, and Wolf PA. “Inverse association of dietary fat with development of ischemic stroke in men.” JAMA 278: 2145-2150 (1997)

Ginsburg GS, Safran C, and Pasternak RC. “Frequency of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hospitalized patients with ‘desirable’ total cholesterol levels.” Am J Cardiol 1: 187-192 (1991)

Gould KL, Ornish D, Scherwitz L, Edens RP, Hess MJ, Bolomey L, Dobbs F, Armstrong WT, Merrit T, Ports T, Sparier S, and Billings J. “Changes in myocardial perfusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography after long-term, intense risk factor modification.” JAMA 274: 894-901 (1995)

Gould KL. “Very low-fat diets for coronary heart disease: perhaps but which one.” JAMA 275: 1402-1403 (1996)

Haffner SM, Mykkanen L, Stern MP, and Valdez R, Heisserman JA, and Bowsher RR. “Relationship of proinsulin and insulin to cardiovascular risk factors in nondiabetic subjects.” Diabetes 42: 1297-1302 (1993)

Hollenbeck C and Reaven GM. “Variations in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in healthy individuals with normal glucose tolerance.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64: 1169-1173 (1987)

Hudgins LC, Hellerstein M, Seidman C, and Hirsch J. “Human fatty acid synthesis is stimulated by a eucaloric low fat, high carbohydrate diet.” J Clin Invest 97: 2081-2091 (1996)

Jeppesen J, Schaaf P, Jones C, Zhou M-Y, Chen YD, and Reaven GM. “Effects of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on risk factors for ischemic heart disease in postmenopausal women.” Am J Clin Nutr 65: 1027-1033 (1997)

Jones PM and Persaud SJ. “Arachidonic acid as a second messenger in glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells.” J Endocrinol 137: 7-14 (1993)

Job FP, Wolfertz J, Meyer R, Hubinger A, Gries FA, and Kuhn H. “Hyperinsulinism in patients with coronary artery disease.” Coronary Artery Disease 5: 487-492 (1994)

Juhan-Vague I, Alessi MC, and Vague P. “Increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels: a possible link between insulin resistance and atherothrombosis.” Diabetoglogia 34: 457-462 (1991)

Kaplan N. “The deadly quartet: upper body obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension.” Arch Int Med 149: 1514-1520 (1989)

Karhapaa P, Malkki M, and Laakso M. “Isolated low HDL cholesterol: An insulin-resistant state.” Diabetes 43:411-417 (1994)

Katan MB, Grundy SM, Willett WC. “Beyond low-fat diets.” N Engl J Med 337: 563-566 (1997)

Kern PA, Ong JM, Soffan B, and Carty J. “The effects of weight loss on the activity and expression of adipose-tissue lipoprotein lipase in very obese individuals.” N Engl J Med 322: 1053-1059 (1990)

Knopp RH, Walden CE, Retzlaff BM, McCann BS, Dowdy AA, Albers JJ, Gey GO, and Cooper MN. “Long-term cholesterol-lowering effects of 4 fat-restricted diets in hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic men: the dietary alternative study.” JAMA 278: 1509-1515 (1997)

Knopp RH. “Serum lipids after a low-fat diet.” JAMA 279: 1345-1346 (1998)

Lakshmanan MR, Nepokroeff CM, Ness GC, Dugan RE, and Porter JW. “Stimulation by insulin of rat liver beta hydroxy methyl HMGCoA and cholesterol synthesizing activities.” Biochem Biophys Res Comm 50: 704-710 (1973)

Lamarche B, Espres JP, Moorjani S, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, and Lupien RJ.
“Triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol as risk factors for ischemic heart disease: results from the Quebec Cardiovascular Study.” Atherosclerosis 119: 235-245 (1996)

Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Dagenais GR, Cantin B, Lupien PJ, and Despres JP. “Small, dense LDL particles and the risk of ischemic heart disease: prospective results from the Quebec Cardiovascular Study.” Circulation 95: 69-75 (1997)

Lamarche B, Tchernot A, Mauriege P, Cantin B, Gagenais GR, Lupien PJ, and Despres J-P. “Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density particle size as risk factors for ischemic heart disease.” JAMA 279: 1965-1961 (1998)

Larsson B, Svarsudd K, Welin L, Wilhelmssen L, Bjorntorp P, and Tilbin G. “Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and death.” Br Med J 288: 1401-1404 (1984)

Laws A, King AC, Haskell WL, and Reaven GM. “Relation of fasting plasma insulin concentration to high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in men.” Arterioscler Thromb 11:1636-1642 (1991)

Laws A and Reaven GM. “Evidence for an independent relationship between insulin resistance and fasting HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and insulin concentrations.” J Int Med 231: 25-30 (1992)

Laws A and Reaven GM. “Insulin resistance and risk factors for coronary heart disease.” Clin Endocrinol Metab 7: 1063-1078 (1993)

Lichtenstein AH and van Horn L. “Very low-fat diets.” Circulation 98: 935-939 (1998)

McKeown-Eyssen G. “Epidemiology of colorectal cancer revisited: are serum triglycerides and/or plasma glucose associated with risk?” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 3: 687-695 (1994)

McNamara JR, Jenner JL, Li Z, Wilson PW, and Schaefer EJ. “Change in LDL particle size is associated with change in plasma triglyceride concentration.” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 12: 1284-1290 (1992)

Metz S, van Rollins M, Strife R, Fujimoto W, and Robertson RP. “Lipoxygenase pathway in islet endrocrine cells–oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid promotes insulin release.” J Clin Invest 71: 1191-1205 (1983)

Metz, S, Fujimoto, W, and Robertson, RO”. Modulation of insulin secretion by cyclic AMP and prostaglandin E.” Metabolism 31: 1014-1033 (1982)

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Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Jenkins DJ, Stampfer MJ, Wing AL, and Willett WC. “Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men.” Diabetes Care 20: 545-550 (1997)

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Thompson PD. “More on low-fat diets.” New Engl J Med 338:1623-1624 (1998)

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Unger RH and Lefebvre PJ. Glucagon: Molecular Physiology, Clinical and therapeutic Implications. Pergamon Press, Oxford. (1972)

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Zavaroni I, Bonora E, Pagliara M, Dall’Aglio E, Luchetti L, Buonnanno G, Bonati PA, Bergonzani M, Gnudi L, Passeri M, and Reaven G. “Risk factors for coronary artery disease in healthy persons with hyperinsulinemia and normal glucose tolerance.” N Engl J Med 320: 702-706 (1989)

Zavaroni I, Bonini L, Fantuzzi M, Dall’Aglio E, Passeri M, and Reaven GM. “Hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and syndrome X.” J Intern Med 235: 51-56 (1994)

Zavaroni I, Dall’Aglio E, Alpi O, Brunschi F, Bonora E, Pezzarossa A, and Butturini U. “Evidence for an independent relationship between plasma insulin and concentrations of high density lipoproteins cholesterol and triglycerides.” Atherosclerosis 55: 259-266 (1985)

Zimmet P and Baba S. “Central obesity, glucose intolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors.” Diabetes Res. Clin. Proc. 16: S167-S171 (1990)

Chapter 15 — Cortisol: Wonder Drug of the ’50s, Messenger of Aging in the ’90s

Cupps TR and Fauci AS. “Corticosteroid-mediated immunoregulation in man.” Immunol Rev 65: 133-155 (1982)

Fauci AS and Dale DC. “The effect of in vivo hydrocortisone on subpopulation of human lymphocytes.” J Clin Invest 53: 240-246 (1974)

Jefferies W. Safe Uses of Cortisone. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL (1981)

Haynes BF and Fauci AS. “The differential effects of in vivo hydrocortisone on kinetics of subpopulations of human peripheral blood thymus-derived lymphocytes.” J Clin Invest 61: 703- 707 (1978)

Munch A and Crabtree GR. “Glucocorticoid-induced lymphocyte death” in Cell Death in Biology and Pathology. Bower ID and Lockskin RA eds. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY. pp 329-357 (1981)

Norman AW and Litwack G. Hormones, 2nd Edition. Academic Press, New York, NY (1997)

Orth DN. “Cushing’s syndrome.” N Engl J Med 332: 791-803 (1995)

Romero LM, Raley-Susman KM, Redish DM, Brooke SM, and Sapolsky R. “Possible mechanism by which stress accelerates growth of virally derived tumors.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 11084-11087 (1992)

Sapolsky RM, Krey L, and McEwen BS. “Stress down regulates corticosterone receptors in a site-specific manner in the brain.” Endocrinology 114: 287-292 (1984)

Sapolsky RM, Krey L, and McEwen BS. “Glucocorticoid-sensitve hippocampal neurons are involved in terminating the adrenocorticol stress response.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 6174-6177 (1984)

Sapolsky RM, Krey L, and McEwen BS. “Prolonged glucocorticoid exposure reduces hippocampal neuron number: implications for aging.” J Neurosci 5: 1222-1227 (1985)

Sapolsky RM, Packan DR, and Vale WW. “Glucocorticoid toxicity in the hippocampus: in vitro demonstration.” Brain Res 453: 367-371 (1988)

Sapolsky RM, Uno H, Rebert CS, and Finch CE. “Hippocampal damage associated with prolonged glucocorticoid exposure in primates.” J Neurosci 10: 2897-2902 (1990)

Selye H. “Studies on adaptation.” Endocrinology 21: 169-188 (1937)

The Anti-Inflammation Zone Bibliography

The following references are from “The Anti-Inflammation Zone” by Dr. Barry Sears, which was published in 2005.

Introduction

Sears B.  The Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1995)

Chapter 1.  What is Wellness?

Oates JA.  “The 1982 Nobel prize in physiology or medicine.”  Science 218: 765-768 (1982)

Sears B.  The Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1995)

Sears B.  The Anti-Aging Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1999)

Sears B.  The Omega Rx Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (2002)

Chapter 2.  Why is Silent Inflammation So Dangerous?

Braunwald E. “Cardiovascular medicine at the turn of the millennium: triumphs, concerns, and applications.” N Engl J Med 337: 1360-1369 (1997)

McGeer PL, Shulzer M, and McGeer EG. “Arthritis and anti-inflammatory agents as possible protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease: a review of 17 epidemiological studies.” Neurology 47: 425-432 (1996)

Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL. Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal N, and Schneider J.  “Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease.” Arch Neurol 60: 940-966 (2003)

Moghadasian MH.   “Experimental atherosclerosis.  A historical overview.”  Life Sci 70: 855-865 (2002)   Olser W. Lectures on Angina Pectoris and Allied States. Appleton. New York, NY (1897)   Ross R. “Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease.” N Engl J Med 340: 115-126 (1999)   Wolfe MM, Lichtenstein RD, and Singh G.  “Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.”  N Engl J Med 340: 1888-1889 (1999)

Yudkin JS, Stehouwer CDA, EmeisJJ, and Coppack SW. “C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction-a potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue?” Arterioscler Thromb Vas Biol 19: 972-978 (1999)

Chapter 3. The Cause and the Cure for Silent Inflammation

Sears B.  The Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1995)

Sears B.  The Anti-Aging Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1999)

Sears B.  The Omega Rx Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (2002)

Chapter 4.  Testing for Silent inflammation

Adams P, Lawson S, Sanigorski A, and Sinclair AJ. “Arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio in blood correlates positively with clinical symptoms of depression.” Lipids 31: S157-S161 (1996)

Boizel R, Behhamou PY, Lardy B, Laporte F, Foulon T, and Halimi S. “Ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol is an indicator of LDL particle size in patients with type 2 diabetes and normal HDL cholesterol levels.” Diabetes Care 23: 1679-1685 (2000)

Campbell B, Badrick T, Flatman R, and Kanowshi D.  “Limited clinical ultility of high-senistivity plasma C-reactive protein assays.”  Ann Clin Biochem39: 85-88 (2002)

Campbell B, Flatman R, Badrick T, and Kanowshi D.  “Problems with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.”  Clin Chem 49: 201 (2003)

Conquer JA, Tierney MC, Zecevic J, Bettger WJ, and Fisher RH. “Fatty acid analysis of blood plasma of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, other types of dementia, and cognitive impairment.” Lipids 35: 1305-1312 (2000)

Danesh J, Wheeler JG, Hirschfield GM, Eiriksdottir G, Remley A, Lowe GD, Pepys MB, and Gudnason J.  “C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease.”  N Engl J Med 350: 1387-1397 (2004)

de Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I;Guidollet J, Touboul P, and Delaye J. “Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.” Lancet 343: 1454-1459 (1994)

de Longeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Delaye J, and Mamelle N. “Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular  complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study.” Circulation 99: 779-785 (1999)

Deron SJ.  C-reactive Protein.  Contemporary Books.  Chicago, IL (2003)

Feng D, Tracy RP, Lipinska I, Murillo J, McKenna C, and Tofler GH. “Effect of short-term aspirin use on C-reactive protein.” J Thromb Thrombolysis  9: 37-41 (2000)

Feldman M, Jialal I, Devaraj S, and Cryer B.  “Effects of low-dose aspirin on serum C-reactive protein and thromboxane B2 concentrations: a placebo-controlled study using a highly sensitive C-reactive protein assay.” J Am Coll Cardiol 37:2036-2041 (2001)

Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH, O’Donnell CJ, Breslow JL, and Buring JE. “Fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins and risk of myocardial infarction.” Circulation 96: 2520-2525 (1997)

Iso H, Sato S, Falsm AR, Shimamoto T, terao A, Munger RG, Kitamure A, Konishi M, Iida M, and Komachi Y.  “Serum fatty acids and fish intake in rual Japanese, urban Japanese, Japanese American and Caucasian American men.”  Int J Epidemiol 18: 374-381 (1989)

Jeppesen J, Hein HO, Suadicani P, and Gyntelberg F. “Low triglycerides-high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of ischemic heart disease.” Arch Intern Med 161: 361-366 (2001)

Kagawa Y, Nishizawa M, Suzuki M, Miyatake T, Hamamoto T, Goto K, Motonaga E, Izumikawa H, Hirata H, and Ebihara A. “Eicosapolyenoic acid of serum lipids of Japanese islanders with low incidence of cardiovascular diseases.” J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 28: 441-453 (1982)

Kluft C and de Maat MPM.  “Genetics of C-reactive protein.”  Arthero Thromb Vasc Biol 23: 1956-1959 (2003)

Kromann N and Green A. “Epidemiological studies in Upernavik district, Greenland.” Acta Med Scan 208: 401-406 (1974)

Laidlaw M and Holub BJ.  “Effects of supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids and gamma-linolenic acid on circulating plasma lipids and fatty acid profiles in women. “Am J Clin Nutr  77: 37-42 (2003)

Lamarche B, Tchernot A, Mauriege P, Cantin B, Gagenais GR, Lupien PJ, and Despres J-P. “Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density particle size as risk factors for ischemic heart disease.” JAMA 279: 1965-1961 (1998)

Maes M. “Fatty acid composition in major depression: decreased n-3 fractions in cholesterol esters and increased C20:n6/C20:5n3 ratio in cholesterol ester and phospholipids.” J Affect Dis 38: 35-46 (1996)

Maes M, Christophe A, Delanghe J, Altamura C, Neels, H, and Meltzer HY. “Lowered omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholpids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients.” Pscyhiarty Res 85: 275-291 (1999)

Nakamura T, Azuma A, Kuribayashi T, Sugihara H, Okuda S, and Nakagawa M.  “Serum fatty acid levels, dietary style and coronary heart in three neighbouring areas in Japan.”  Brit J Nutr 89: 267-272 (2003)

Nordvik I, Myhr K-M, Nyland H, and Bjerve KS. “Effect of dietary advice and n-3 supplementation in newly diagnosed MS patients.” Acta Neurol Scand 102: 143-149 (2000)

Pedesen HS, Mulvad G, Seidelin KN, Malcom GT, and Doudreau DA.  “N-3 fatty acids as a risk marker for haemorrhagic stroke.”  Lancet 353: 812-813 (1999)

Pirro M, Bergeron J, Dagenais GR, Bernard P-M, Cantin B, Depres J-P, and Lamarche B.  “Age and duration of follow-up as modulators of the risk for ischemic heart disase asscoaited with high plasma C-reactive protein levels in men.”  Arch Int Med 161: 2474-2480 (2001)

Ridker PM. “High-sensitivity C-reactive protein.” Circulation 103: 1813-1818 (2001)

Ridker PM, Cushman M, Stampfer MJ, Tracy RP, and Hennekens CH. “Inflammation, aspirin, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men.” N Engl J Med 336: 973-979 (1996)

Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, and Rifai N. “C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women.” New Engl J Med 42: 836-843 (2000)

Ridker PM, Fifai N, Stampfer MJ, and Hennekens CH. “Plasma concentration of interleukin-6 and the risk of future myocardinal infarction among apparently healthy men.” Circulation 101: 1767-1772 (2000)

Ridker PM , Rifai N, Pfeffer MA, Sacks FM, Moye LA, Goldman S; Flaker GC, Braunwald E.   “Inflammation, pravastatin, and the risk of coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events ( CARE ) Investigators.” Circulation  98: 839-44  (1998)

Rifai N and Ridker PM. “High-senistivity C-reactive protein: a novel and promising marker of coronary heart disease.” Clin Chem 47: 403-411 (2001)

Sears B.  The Omega Rx Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (2002)

Stevens LJ and Burgess J. “Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning, and health problems.” Physiology Behavior 59: 915-920 (1996)

Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, Abate ML, Watkins BA, Lipp SA, and Burgess JR. “Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Am J Clin Nutr 62: 761-768 (1995)

Takeda T, Hoshida S, Nishino M, Tanouchi J, Otsu K, and Hori M.  “ Relationship between effects of statins, aspirin and angiotensin II modulators on high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels.” Atherosclerosis  169:155-188 (2003)

Tall AR.  “C-reactive protein reassessed.”  N Engl J Med 350: 1450-1452 (2004)

Upritchard JE, Sutherland WH, and Mann JI.   “Effect of supplementation with tomato juice, vitamin E, and vitamin Con LDL oxidation and products of inflammatory activity in type 2 diabetes.”  Diabetes Care  23: 733-738 (2000)

Yamada T, Strong JP, Ishii T, Ueno T, Koyama M, Wagayama H, Shimizu A, Sakai T, Malcom GT, and Guzman MA. “Atherosclerosis and omega-3 fatty acids in the populations of a fishing village and a farming village in Japan.” Atherosclerosis 153: 469-481 (2000)

Yeni-Komshian H, Caratoni M, Abbasi F, and Reaven GM.  “Relationship between several surrogate estimates of insulin resistance and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 490 healthy nondiabetic volunteers.”  Diabetes Care 23: 171-175 (2000)

Chapter 5: The Zone Diet:  Your First Line of Defense Against Silent Inflammation

Astrup PA, Meinert Larsen DT, Harper A. “Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss? “ Lancet  364: 897-899 (2004)

Bell SJ and Sears B.  “Low glycemic load diets:  impact on obesity and chronic diseases.”  Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43: 357-377 (2003)

Bell SJ and Sears B.  “A proposal for a new national diet:  a low glycemic load diet with a unique macronutrient composition.”  Metabol Syndrome and Related Disorders 1: 199-200 (2003)

Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, and Johnson CL.  “Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000.” JAMA  288: 1723-1727 (2002)

Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC.  “International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002.” Am J Clin Nutr  76: 5-56 (2002)

Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM , Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin JM , Bowling AC , Newman HC, Jenkins AL, and Goff DV. “Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.” Am J Clin Nutr  34:362-6 (1981)

Leeds AR.  “Glycemic index and heart disease.” Am J Clin Nutr 76: 286S-289S (2002)

Liu S, Manson JE, Buring JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, and Ridker PM. “Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women.” Am J Clin Nutr  75:492-498 (2002)

Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L, Hennekens CH, and Manson JE. “A prospective study of dietary glycemic load , carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women.”  Am J Clin Nutr  71: 1455-1461 (2002)

Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Holmes MD, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, and Willett WC.  “Dietary glycemic load assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma triacylglycerols in postmenopausal women.” Am J Clin Nutr  73: 560-566 (2001)

Ludwig DS , Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, and Roberts SB. “High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity.” Pediatrics  103:E26    (1999)

Ludwig DS.  “The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.  JAMA 287: 2414-2423 (2002)

Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Nelson DE, Engelgau MM, Vinicor F, and Marks JS. “Diabetes trends in the U.S.” 1990-1998.” Diabetes Care 23: 1278-1283 (2000)

Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, and Marks JS.  “Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001.”  JAMA 289: 76-79 (2003)

Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, and Johnson CL.  “Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999-2000.”  JAMA  288: 1728-32 (2002)

Roberts SB.  “High-glycemic index foods, hunger, and obesity : is there a connection?” Nutr Rev 58: 163-169 (2000)

Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, and Willett WC.   “Dietary fiber, glycemic load , and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women.” JAMA  277: 472-477 (1997)

Sears B and Bell SJ.  “The Zone Diet:  an anti-inflammatory, low glycemic-load diet.”  Metabolic syndrome and Related Disorders 2: 24-38 (2004)

Sears B.  The Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1995)

Sears B.  Mastering the Zone. Regan Books.  New York, NY (1997)

Sears B.  A Week in the Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (2000)

Sears B and Sears L.  Zone Meals in Seconds.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (2002)

Willett W, Manson J, Liu S.  Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr  76: 274S-80S (2002)

Chapter 6.  Turning Your Kitchen into Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacy

Sears B.  The Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1995)

Sears B.  Mastering the Zone. Regan Books.  New York, NY (1997)

Sears B.  Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1998)

Sears B.  Zone Food Blocks.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1998)

Sears B.  Top 100 Zone Foods.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1999)

Sears B.  A Week in the Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (2000)

Sears B and Sears L.  Zone Meals in Seconds.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (2002)

Chapter 7:  Your Best Defense Against Silent Inflammation:  High-dose Fish Oil

Arisawa K, Matsummura T, Tohyama c, Saito H, Satoh H, Hagai M, Morita M, and Suzuki T.  “Fish intake, plasma omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polychlorinated debenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls in the blood of the Japanese population.”  Int Arch Occup Environ Health 76: 205-215 (2003)

Pedesen HS, Mulvad G, Seidelin KN, Malcom GT, and Doudreau DA.  “N-3 fatty acids as a risk marker for haemorrhagic stroke.”  Lancet 353: 812-813 (1999)

Sears B.  The Omega Rx Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (2002)

Zuijdgeest-van Leeuwen SD, Dagnelie PC, Rietveld T, van den Berg JWO, and Wilson JHP.  “Incorporation and washout of rally administered n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in different plasma lipid fracions.”  Brit J Nutr 82: 481-488 (1999)

Chapter 8:  Additional Supplements to Reduce Silent Inflammation

Albert MA, Glynn RJ, and Ridker PM. “Alcohol consumption and plasma concentration of C-reactive protein.” Circulation  107: 443-447 (2003)

de Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Guidollet J, Touboul P, and Delaye J. “Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.” Lancet 343: 1454-1459 (1994)

deLongeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Delaye J, and Mamelle N. “Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular  complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study.” Circulation 99: 779-785 (1999)

GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators. “Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial.” Lancet 354: 447-455 (1999)

Higdon JV, Du SH, Lee YS, Wu T, and Wander RC.  “Supplementation of postmenopausal women with fish oil does not increase overall oxidation of LDL ex vivo compared to dietary oils rich in oleate and linoleate.” J Lipid Res  42: 407-418 (2001)

Horrocks LA and Yeo YK.   “Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).”  Pharmacol Res  40: p211-225 (1999)

Jacobs EJ, Connell CJ, Patel AV, Chao A, Rodriguez C, Seymour J. McCullough ML, Calle EE, and Thun MJ.   “Vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use and colorectal cancer mortality in a large American Cancer Society cohort.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev  10: 17-23 (2001)

Kangasaho M, Hillbom M, Kaste M, and Vapaatalo H.   “Effects of ethanol intoxication and hangover on plasma levels of thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and on thromboxane B2 formation by platelets in man.”  Thromb Haemost  48: 232- 234   (1982)

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Chapter 9: Zone Smart Exercise

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Chapter 10: Reducing the Collateral Damage of Silent Inflammation

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Richardson AJ and Puri BK.  “A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties.” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 26: 233- 239 (2002)

Richardson AJ, Calvin CM, Clisby C, Schoenheimer DR, Montgomery P, Hall JA, Hebb G, Westwood E, Talcott JB, and Stein JF.  “Fatty acid deficiency signs predict the severity of reading and related difficulties in dyslexic children.” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 63:69-74  (2000)

Ross BM, McKenzie I, Glen I, and Bennett CP.  “Increased levels of ethane, a non-invasive marker of n- 3fatty acid oxidation, in breath of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Nutr Neurosci  6: 277-281 (2003)

Sachdev P. “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.” Psychological Med 29: 507-514 (1999)

Sears B.  The Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1995)

Sears B.  The Anti-Aging Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1995)

Sears B.  The Omega Rx Zone.  Regan Books.  New York, NY (1995)

Sonderberg M, Edlund C. Kristensson K, and Dallner G. “Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids in aging and Alzheimer’s disease.” Lipids 26: 421-423 (1991)

Stein J. “The neurobiology of reading difficulties.” Prostaglandins Leuko Essen Fatty Acids 63: 109-116 (2000)

Stevens LJ and Burgess J. “Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning, and health problems.” Physiology Behavior 59: 915-920 (1996)

Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, Abate ML, Watkins BA, Lipp SA, and Burgess JR. “Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Am J Clin Nutr 62: 761-768 (1995)

Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L, Kuczek T, Grevstad N, Mahon A, Zentall SS, Arnold LE, and Burgess JR.  “EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors.” Lipids  38:1007-1021 (2003)

Stewart WF, Kawas C, Corrada M, and Metter EJ. “Risk of Alzhemier’s disease and duration of NSAID use.” Neurology 48: 626-632 (1997)

Stoll AL, Sverus E, Freeman MP, Rueter S, Zhoyan HA, Diamond E, Cress KK, and Marangell LB. “Omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar depression: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” Arch Gen Psychiarty 56: 407-412 (1999)

Stordy BJ. “Benefit of docosahexaenoic acid supplements to dark adaption in dyslexics.” Lancet 346: 385 (1995)

Su K-P, Huang S-Y, Chiu C-C, and Shen WW.  “Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder.”  Eur Neuropsychopharmacology 13: 267-271 (2003)

Tanskanen A. “Fish consumption, depression, and suicidality in a general population.” Arch Gen Psychiarty 58: 512-513 (2001)

Taylor KE and Richardson AJ.  “Visual function, fatty acids and dyslexia.” Prostglandins Leuko Essen Fatty Acids 63: 89-93 (2000)

Terano T, Fujishiro S, Ban T, Ymamoto K, Tanaka T, Noguchi Y, Tamura Y, K Yazawa, and Hirayama T. “Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves moderately severe dementia from thromobotic cerebrovascular diseases. ” Lipids 34: S345-S346 (1999)

Teunissen CE, van Boxtel MPJ, Bosma H, Bosmans E, Delanghe J, De Bruijin, Wauters A, Maes M, Jolles J, Steinbusch HWM, and de Vente J.  “Inflammatory markers in relation to cognition in a healthy aging population.”  J Neuroimmunity 134: 142-150 (2003)

Tully Am, Roche HM, Doyle R, Fallon C, Bruce I, Lawlor B, Coakley D, and Gibney MJ.  “Low serum cholesteryl ester-docosahexaenoic acid levels in Alzheimer’s disease.”  Br J Nutr 89: 483-489 (2003)

Uauy R, Peirano P, Hoffman D, Mena P, Birch D, and Birch E. “Role of essential fatty acids in the function of the developing nervous system.” Lipids 31: S167-S176 (1996)

Venters HD, Dantzer R, and Kelly KW. “A new concept in neurodegeneration: TNF is a silencer of survival signals.” Trends in Neuroscience 23: 175-180 (2000)

Virkkunen ME, Horrobin DF, Douglas K, Jenkins K, and Manku MS. “Plasma phospholipids essential fatty acids and prostaglandin in alcholic, habitually violent, and impulsive offenders.” Bio Psych 22: 1087-1096 (1987)

Vitkovic L, Bockaert J, and Jacque C. “Inflammatory cytokines: neuromodulators in normal brain?” J Neurochem 74: 457-471 (2000)

Yehuda S, Rabinovitz S, Carasso RL, and Mostofsky DI. “Essential fatty acid preparation improves Alzheimer’s patients quality of life.” Int J Neurosci 87: 141-149 (1996)

Yehuda S, Rabinovitz S, and Mostofsky DI. “Essential fatty acids are mediators of brain biochemistry and cognitive functions.” J Neurosci Res 56: 565-570 (1999)

Zametkin AJ, Nordahl TE, King AC; Semple WE; Rumsey J; Hamburger S; Cohen RM. “Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset.” N Engl J Med 323: 1361-1366 (1990)

Zametkin AJ and Ernst M. “Problems in the management of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.” N Engl J Med 340: 40-46 (1999)

Zimmer L, Hembert S, Durand G, Breton P, Guillotau D, Besnard JC, and Chalon S. “Chronic n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet-deficiency acts on dopamine metabolism in the rat frontal cortex.” Neurosci Letter 240: 177-181 (1998)

Zimmer L, Vancassel S, Cantagrel S, Breton P, Delamanche S, guilloteau D, Durand G, and Chalon S.  “The dopamine mesocorticolimbic pathway is affected by deficiency in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.”  Am J Clin Nutr 75: 662-667 (2002)

Chapter 18. Screaming Pain

Adam O, Beringer C, Kless T, Lemmen C, Adam A, Wiseman M, Adam P, Klimmek R, and Forth W.  “Anti-inflammatory effects of a low arachidonic acid diet and fish oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.”  Rheumatol Int 23: 27-36 (2003)

Ariza-Ariza R, Mestanza-Peralta M, and Cardiel MH. “Omega-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview.” Semin Arthritis Rheum 27: 366-370 (1998)

Babcok T, Helton WS, and Espat NJ. “Eicosapentaenoic acid: an anti- inflammatory omega-3 fat with potential clinical applications.” Nutr 16: 1116-1118 (2000)

Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M, Pera A, Boschi S, and Miglioli M. “Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn’s disease.” N Engl J Med 354: 1557-1560 (1996)

Belluzzi A, Boschi S, Brignola C, Munarini A, Cariani G, and Miglio F. “Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory bowel disease.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 339S-42S (2000)

Blok WL, Katan MB, and van der Meer JW. “Modulation of inflammation and cytokine production by dietary (n-3) fatty acids.” J Nutr 126: 1515-1533 (1996)

Calder PC. “n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease.” Ann Nutr Metab 41: 203-234 (1997)

Calder PC. “n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity.” Nutr Res 21: 309-341 (2001)

Chandrasekar B and Fernandes G. “Decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased antioxidant enzyme gene expression by omega-3 lipids in murine lupus nephritis.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200(2): 893-898 (1994)

Clark WF, Parbtani A, Naylor CD, Levinton CM, Muirhead N, Spanner E, Huff MW, Philbrick DJ, and Holub BJ. “Fish oil in lupus nephritis: clinical findings and methodological implications.” Kidney Int 44: 75-86 (1993)

Cleland LG, French JK, Betts WH, Murphy GA, and Elliott MJ. “Clinical and biochemical effects of dietary fish oil supplements in rheumatoid arthritis.” J Rheumatol 15: 1471-1475 (1988)

Das UN. “Beneficial effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanenoic acids in the management of systemic erthematosus and its relationship to the cytokine network.” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 51: 207-o213 (1994)

Donadio JV, Grande JP, Bergstralh EJ, Dart RA, Larson TS, and Spencer DC. “The long-term outcome of patients with IgA nephropathy treated with fish oil in a controlled trial.” J Am Soc Nephrol 10: 1772-1777 (1999)

Endres S. “Messengers and mediators: interactions among lipids, eicosanoids, and cytokines.” Am J Clin Nutr 57: 798S-800S (1993)

Endres S. “n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human cytokine synthesis.” Lipids 31 S239-242 (1996)

Endres S and von Schacky C. “n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human cytokine synthesis.” Curr Opin Lipidol 7: 48-52. (1996)

Endres S, Ghorbani R, Kelley VE, Georgilis K, Lonnemann G, van der Meer JW, Cannon JG,  Rogers TS, Klempner MS, Weber PC, et al. “The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells.” N Engl J Med 320: 265-271 (1989)

Endres S, Lorenz R, and Loeschke K. “Lipid treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2: 117-20 (1999

Endres S, Sinha B, and Eisenhut T. “Omega 3 fatty acids in the regulation of cytokine synthesis.” World Rev Nutr Diet 76: 89-94. (1994)

Fox DA. “Cytokine blockade as a new strategy to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor.” Arch Intern Med 160 437-444 (2000)

Geusens P, Wouters C, Nijs J, Jiang Y, and Dequeker J. “Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A 12-month, double-blind, controlled study.” Arthritis Rheum 37: 824-829 (1994)

Kilkens TOC, Honig A, Maes M, Lousberg R, and Brummer R-J.  “Fatty acid profile and affective dysregulation in irritable bowel syndrome.”  Lipids 39: 425-431 (2004)

Kremer JM. “n-3 fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 349S-351S. (2000)

Kremer JM, Lawrence DA, Petrillo  GF, Litts LL, Mullaly PM, Rynes RI, Stocker RP, Parhami N, Greenstein NS, and Fuchs BR. “Effects of high-dose fish oil on rheumatoid arthritis after stopping nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Clinical and immune correlates.” Arthritis Rheum 38: 1107-1114 (1995)

Lo CJ, Chiu KC, Fu M, Lo R, and Helton S. “Fish oil decreases macrophage tumor necrosis factor gene transcription by altering the NF kappaB activity.” J Surg Res 82: 216-221 (1999)

Meydani SN. “Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on cytokine production and their biological action.” Nutrition 12: S8-14 (1996)

Ozgocmen S, Catal SA, Ardicoglu O, and Kamanli A. “Effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of fibromyalgia syndrome.” Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 38: 362-363 (2000)

Pisetsky DS. “Tumor necrosis factor blockers in rheumatoid arthritis.” N Engl J Med 342: 810-811 (2000)

Prickett JD, Robinson DR, and Steinberg AD. “Dietary enrichment with polyunsaturated acid eicosapentaenoic acid prevents proteinuria and prolongs survival in NZBxNZW F1 mice.” J Clin Invest 68: 556-559 (1981)

Robinson DR, Xu LL, Tateno S, Guo M, and Colvin RB. “Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids.” J Lipid Res 34: 1435-1444 (1993)

Ross E. “The role of marine oils in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.” Nutr Rev 51: 47-49 (1993)

Shapiro H.  “Could n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce pathological pain direct actions on the nervous system.”  Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acid 68: 219-224 (2003)

Simopoulos AP.  “Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases.”  J Am Coll Nutr 21: 495-505 (2002)

Sperling RI. “The effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neutrophils.” Proc Nutr Soc 57: 527-534 (1998)

Teitelbaum JE andAllan Walker W. “The role of omega 3 fatty acids in intestinal inflammation.” J Nutr Biochem 12: 21-32 (2001)

Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, Russel IJ, and Hebert L. “The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population.” Arthritis Rhum 38: 19-28 (1995)

Zaloga GP and Parik P.  “Lipid modulation and systemic inflammation.”  Crit Care Clin 17: 201-217

Zurier RB. “Prostaglandins, immune responses and murine lupus.” Arth. Rheum. 25: 804-809 (1982)

Zurier RB. “Lipids and lupus.” in Lupus: Molecular and Cellular Pathogenesis.                     Kammer GM and Tsokos GC eds. Humana Press. pp. 599-611 (1998)

Chapter 19:  Who is to Blame?

Darman N, Briend A, and Drewnowski A.  “Energy-dense diets are associated with lower diet costs.”  Public Health Nutrition 7: 21-27 (2004)

Drewnowski A.  “The role of energy density.”  Lipids 38: 109-115 (2003)

Drewnowski A.  “Fat and sugar:  an economic analysis.”  J Nutr 133: 838S-840S (2003)

Drewnowski A.  “Energy density, palatability and satiation:  implications for weight control.”  Nutr Rev 56: 347-353 (1998)

Nestle M.  Food Politics.  How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. University of California Press.  Berkely, CA.  (2002)

Nestle M.  “The ironic politics of obesity.”  Science 299: 781 (2003)

Nielsen SJ and Popkin BM.  “Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977-1998.”  JAMA 289: 450-453 (2003)

Popkin BM and Nielsen SJ.  “The sweetening of the world’s diet.”  Obesity Res 11: 1325-1331 (2003)

Chapter 20:  Avoiding the Coming Collapse of the Health Care System

Noakes M, Foster Pr, Keogh JB, and Clifton PM.  “Meal replacements are as effective as structured weight-loss diets for treating obesity in adults with features of metabolic syndrome.”  J Nutr 134: 1894-1899 (2004)

Yao M and Roberts SB.  “Dietary energy density and weight regulation.”  Nutr Rev 59: 247-258  (2001)

Willet WC.  Eat, Drink and Be Healthy. The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating.  Fireside.  New York, NY (2001)

The OmegaRx Zone Bibliography

The following references are from “The Omega Zone,” by Dr. Barry Sears, which was published in May 2002.

Appendix I-References
Introduction

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. Mastering the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Food Blocks. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Sears B. The Soy Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2000)

Sears B. A Week in the Zone. Regan Books. New York (2000)

Sears B. 100 Top Zone Foods. Regan Books. New York, NY (2001)

PART 1.

Chapter 1–Control Your Hormones, Control Your Life

De Groot LJ, Besser M, Burger HG, Jameson JL, Loriaux DL, Marshall JC, Odell WD, Potts JT, and Rubenstein AH eds. Endocrinology, 3rd edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA (1995)

Felig P, Baxter JD, and Frohman LA. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1995)

Lands WEM. Fish and Human Health. Academic Press. New York, NY (1986)

Norman AW and Litwack G. Hormones, 2nd Edition. Academic Press, New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Timiras PS, Quay WB, and Vernakdakis A eds. Hormones and Aging. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (1995)

Wilson JD and Foster DW, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 8th Edition. W.B. Sauders Company, Philadelphia, PA. (1992)

Chapter 2–The Sears Diet

Cao G, Sofic E, and Prior RL. “Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables.” J Agric Food Chem 44: 3426-3431 (1996)

Oates JA. “The 1982 Nobel prize in physiology or medicine.” Science 218: 765-768 (1982)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. Mastering the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Food Blocks. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Sears B. The Soy Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2000)

Sears B. A Week in the Zone. Regan Books. New York (2000)

Sears B. 100 Top Zone Foods. Regan Books. New York, NY (2001)

Wang H, Cao G, and Prior RL. “Total antioxidant capacity of fruits.” J Agric Food Chem 44: 701-705 (1996)

Chapter 3–How Modern Man Evolved

Aiello LC and Wheeler P. “The expensive-tissue hypothesis.” Current Anthropology 36 199-221 (1995)

Berger LR. In the Footsteps of Eve. The Mystery of Human Origins. National Geographic. Washington, DC. (2000)

Broadhurst CL, Cunnane SC, and Crawford MA. “Rift valley lake fish and shellfish provided brain-specific nutrition for early Homo.” Br J Nutr 79: 3-21 (1998)

Chamberlain JG. “The possible role of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in human brain phylogeny.” Prespect Bio Med 39: 436-445 (1996)

Cordain, Miller JB, Eaton SB, Mann N, Holt SHA, and Speth JD. “Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 682-692 (2000)

Crawford MA, _____”Comparative studies on fatty acid composition of wild and domestic animals.” Int J Biochem 1: 295-305 (1970)

Crawford MA, Bloom M, Broadhurst CL, Schmidt WF, Cunnane SC, Galli C, Gehremeskel K, Linseisen F., Lloyd-Smith J, and Parkington J. “Evidence for the unique function of docosahexaenoic acid during the evolution of the modern homind brain.” Lipids 34: S39-S47 (1999)

Crawford MA. “Fatty acid ratios in free-living and domestic animals.” Lancet i:1329-1333 (1968)

Crawford MA and Marsh D. The Driving Force: Food, Evolution, and the Future. Harper and Row, New York (1989)

Diamond J. The third Chimpanzee. The evolution and future of the human animal. Harper Collins. New York, NY ((1992)

Eaton B, Shostak M, and Konner M. The Paleolithic Prescription. Harper and Row, New York, NY. (1988)

Eaton SB. “An evolutionary perspective enhances understanding of human nutritional requirements.” J Nutr 126: 1732-1740 (1996)

Eaton SB, Eaton SB, Sinclair AJ, Cordain L, and Mann NJ. “Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the Paleolithic.” World Rev Nutr Diet 83: 12-23 (1998)

Eaton SB. “Humans, lipids, and evolution.” Lipids 27: 814-820 (1992)

Eaton SB, Konner M, and Shostak M. “Stone agers in the fast lane: Chronic degenerative diseasses in evolutionary implications.” Am J Med 84:739-749 (1988)

Eaton SB and Konner MJ. “Paleolithic nutrition.” N Engl J Med 312:283-289 (1985)

Eaton SB and Konner MJ. “Paleolithic nutrition revisited: a twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications.” Eur J Clin Nutr 51: 207-216 (1997)

Eaton SB, KonnerM, and Shostak M. “Stone agers in the fast lane: chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective.” Am J Med 84: 739-749 (1998)

Foley RA and Lee PC. “Ecology and energetics of encephalization in homind evolution.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Bio Sci 334: 223-231 (1991)

Relethford JH. “Genetic history of the human species” in Handbook of Statistical Genetics. DJ Balding et al editors. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. New York, NY pp. 813-845 (2001)

Relenthford JH. “Genetics of modern human origins and diversity.” Ann Rev Anthropol 27: 1-23 (1998)

Ruff CB, Trinkaus E, and Holliday TW. “Body mass and encephalization in Pleistocene Homo.” Nature 387: 173-176 (1997)

Stringer C and McKie R. African Exodus: The Orgins of Modern Humanity. Henry Holt and Company. New York, NY (1996)

Sykes B. The Seven Daughters of Eve. WW Norton. New York, NY (2001)

Viglant L, Stonemaking M, Harpending H Hawkes K, and Wilson AC. “African populations and evolution of human mitochrondrial DNA.” Science 253 1503-1507 (1991)

Yesner DR. “Maritime hunter-gatherers: ecology and prehistory.” Curr Anthropol 21: 727-750 (1980)
Chapter 4–The Fats that Made Us Human

Anderson GJ. “Developmental sensitivity of the brain to dietary n-3 fatty acids.” J Lipid Res 35: 105-111 (1994)

Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, and Remley DT. “Breast-feeding and cognitive development: a meta analysis.” Am J Clin Nutr 70: 535-535 (1999)

Bitman J, Wood L, Hamosh M, Hamosh P, and Mehta R. “Comparision of the lipid composition of breast milk from mothers of term and preterm infants.” Am J Clin Nutr 38: 300-312 (1983)

Brozoski TJ, Brown RM, Rosvold HE, and Goldman PS. “Cognitive deficit caused by regional depletion of dopamine in prefrontal cortex of Rhesus monkey.” Science 205: 929-932 (1979)

Carlson SE, Werkman SH, Rhodes PG, and Tolley EA. “Visual acuity development in healthy preterm infants: effect of marine-oil supplements.” Am J Clin Nutr 58: 35-42 (1993)

Carlson SE, Werkman Sh, Peeples JM, and Wilson WM. “Long-chain fatty acids and early visual and cognitive development of preterm infants.” Eur J Clin Nutr 48: S27-S30 (1994)

Cunnane SC, Francescutti V, Brenna JT, and Crawford MA. “Breast-fed infants achieve a higher rate of brain and whole body docosahexaenoate accumulat than formula-fed infants not consuming dieatary docosahexaenoate.” Lipids 35 105-111 (2000)

Delion S, Chalon S, Guilloteau D, Besnard JC, and Durand G. “Alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters age-related changes of dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitters in the rat frontal cortex.” J Neurochem 66: 1582-1591 (1996)

Delion S, Chalon S, Herault J, Guilloteau D, Besnard JC, and Durand G. “Chronic dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitters in rats.” J Nutr 124: 2466-2476 (1994)

Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Brown KH, and Rivera LL. “Effects of exclusive breastfeeding for four versus six month on maternal nutritional status and infant motor development: results of two randomized trials in Honduras.” J Nutr 131: 262-267 (2001)

Dyerberg J, Bang HO, and Hjorne N. “Fatty acid composition of the plasma lipids in Greenland Eskimos.” Am J Clin Nutr 28: 958-966 (1975)

Farquharson J, Jamieson EC, Abbasi KA, Patrick WJA, Logan RW, and Cockburn F. “Effect of diet on fatty acid composition of major phospholipids of intact cerebal cortex.” Arch Dis Child 72: 198-203 (1995)

Farquharson J, Cockburn F, Patrick WA, Jamieson EC, and Logan RW. “Infant cerebral cortex phospholipid fatty acid composition and diet.” Lancet 340: 810-814 (1992)

Francois CA, Connor SL, Wander RC, and Connor WE. “Acute effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acids of human milk.” Am J Clin Nutr 67: 301-308 (1998)

Green P and Yavin E. “Mechanisms of docosahexaenoic acid accretion in the fetal brain.” J Neurosci Res 52: 129-136 (1997)

Gibson RA and Kneebone GM. “Fatty acid composition of human colostrums and mature breast milk.” Am J Clin Nutr 34: 252-257 (1981)

Gibson RA, Neumann MA, and Makrides M. “Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on brain composition and neural function in term infants.” Lipids 31: S177-S181 (1996)

Ikemoto A, Kobayashi T, Watanbe S, and Okuyama H. “Membrane fatty acid modifications of PC12 cells by arachidonate or docosahexaenoic affect neurite outgrowth but not norepinephrine release.” Neurochem Res 22 671-678 (1997)

Holman RT, Johnson SB, and Ogburn PL. “Deficiency of essential fatty acids anad membrane fluidity during pregnancy and lactation.” Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 88; 4835-4839 (1991)

Horrocks LA and Yeo YK. “Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).” Pharmacol Res 40: 211-225 (1999)

Innis SM. “The role of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in the developing brain.” Dev Neurosci 22: 474-480 (2000)

Jensen RG. The Lipids of Human Milk. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL (1989)

Jensen RG. “Lipids in human milk.” Lipids 34 1243-1271 (1999)

Kneebone GM, Kneebone R, and Gibson RA. “Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups fromPenang, Malaysia.” Am J Clin Nutr 41: 765-769 (1985)

Lim S-Y and Suzuki H. “Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice.” J Nutr 130: 1629-1632 (2000)

Lim S-Y and Suzuki H. “Changes in maze behavior of mice occur after sufficient accumulation of docosahexanoic acid in brain.” J Nutr 131: 319-324 (2001)

Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ, Lister G, and Leeson-Payne C. “Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born perterm.” Lancet 339: 261-264 (1992)

Makrides M, Neurmann MA, Byard RW, Simmer K, and Gibson RA. “Fatty acid composition of the brain, retina, and erythrocytes in breast-and formula-fed infants.” Am J Clin Nutr 60: 189-194 (1994)

Neuringer M. “Cerebral cortex docosahexaenoic acid is lower in formula-fed than in brest-fed infants.” Nutr Rev 51: 238-241 (1993)

Suzuki H, Park S, Tamura M, and Ando S. “Effect of the long-term feeding of dietary lipids on the learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in adult mice: a comparison of sardine oil diet with palm oil diet.” Mech Age Dev 101: 119-128 (1998)

Willatts P and Forsyth JS. “The role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant cognitive development.” Prostglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 63: 95-100 (2000)

Yonekubo A, Honda S, Kanno T, Takahashi K, and Yamamoto Y. “Physiological role of docosahexaenoic acid in mother’s milk and infant formulas.” In Essential Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids. Sinclair A and Gibson R eds. American Oil Chemists Press. Champaign, IL pp.214-217 ((1992)

Zimmer L, Delpal S. Guilloteau D, Aioun J, Durand G, and Chalon S. “Chronic n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency alters dopamine vesicle density in the rat frontal cortex.” Neurosci Lett 284: 25-28 (2000)

Zimmer L, Hembert S, Durand G, Breton P, guilloteau D, Besnard JC, and Chalon S. “Chronic n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet deficiency act on dopamine metabolism in the rat frontal cortex.” Neurosci Lett 240: 177-181 (1998)

Zimmer L, breton P, Durand G, Guilloteau D, Besnard JC, and Chalon S. “Prominent role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cortical dopamine metabolism.” Nutr Neurosci 2: 257-265 (1999)
Chapter 5–Eicosanoids: Hormones that Harm, Hormones that Heal

Bonora E, Willeit J, Kiechl S, Oberhollenzer F, Egger G, Bonadonna R, and Meggeo M. “U-shaped and J-shaped relationships between serum insulin and coronary heart disese in the general population.” Diabetes Care 21: 221-230 (1998)

Brenner RR. “Nutrition and hormonal factors influencing desaturation of essential fatty acids.” Prog Lipid Res 20: 41-48 (1982)

Connor WE. “Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: S171S-S175 (2000)

Dek SB and Walsh MF. “Leukotrienes stimulate insulin release from rat pancreas.” Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 81: 2199-2202 (1985)

Depres J-P, Lamarche B. Mauriege P, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, Moorjani S, and Lupien P-J. “Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease.” N Engl J Med 334: 952-957 (1996)

Gaziano JM, Skerrett PJ, and Buring JE. “Aspirin in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease.” Haemostasis 30: 1-13 (2000)

Lakshmanan MR, Nepokroeff CM, Ness GC, Dugan RE, and Porter JW. “Stimulation by insulin of rat liver beta hydroxy methyl HMGCoA and cholesterol synthesizing activities.” Biochem Biophys Res Comm 50: 704-710 (1973)

Metz, S, Fujimoto, W, and Robertson, RO”. Modulation of insulin secretion by cyclic AMP and prostagladin E.” Metabolism 31: 1014-1033 (1982)

Metz S, van Rollins M, Strife R, Fujimoto W, and Robertson RP. “Lipoxygenase pathway in islet endrocrine cells–oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid promotes insulin release.” J Clin Invest 71: 1191-1205 (1983)

Oates JA. “The 1982 Nobel prize in physiology or medicine.” Science 218: 765-768 (1982)

Pek SB and Walsh MF. “Leukotrienes stimulate insulin released from rat pancreas.” Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 82: 2199-2202 (1984)

Robertson RP. “Prostaglandins, glucose homeostasis and diabetes mellitus.” Ann Rev Med 34: 1-12 (1983)

Robertson RP, Gavarenski DJ, Porte D, and Bierman EL. “Inhibition of in vivo insulin secretion by prostaglandin E1.” J Clin Invest 54: 310-315 (1974)

Sacca L, Perez G, Pengo F, Pascucci I, and Conorelli M. “Reduction of circulating insulin levels during the infusion of different prostaglandins in the rat.” Acta Endocrinol 79: 266-274 (1975)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)
Chapter 6–Defining Wellness

Brod SA. “Unregulated inflammatin shortens human functional longevity.” Inflamm Res 49: 561-570 (2000)

Dalen JE. “Health care in America. The good, the bad,and the ugly.” Arch Intern Med 160: 2573-2576 (2000)

Eaton SB, KonnerM, and Shostak M. “Stone agers in the fast lane: chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective.” Am J Med 84: 739-749 (1998)

Lane MA, Ingram DK, and Roth GS. “Calorie restriction in nonhuman primates: effects on diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk.” Toxicological Sci 52: 41-48 (1999)

Parr T. “Insulin exposure and aging theory.” Gerontology 43: 182-200 (1997)

Parr T. “Insulin exposure controls the rate of mamalian aging.” Mech. Ageing and Develop. 88: 75-82 (1996)

PART 2. Getting Started

Chapter 7–Getting Started on the Sears Diet

Agus MSD, Swain JF, Larson CL, Eckert EA, and Ludwig DS. “Dietary composition and physiologic adaptations to energy restriction.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 901-907 (2000)
Ascherio A and Willett WC. “Health effects of trans fatty acids.” Am J Clin Nutr 66: 1006S-10010S (1997)

Bertoni-Freddari cl, Fattoretti P, Caselli U, Casoi T, Di Stefano G, and Algeri S. “Dietary restriction modulates synapic structural synamics in the aging hippocampus.” Age 22: 107-113 (1999)

Bodkin NL, Ortmeyer HK, and Hansen BC. “Long-term dietary restriction inolder-aged rhesus monkeys: effects on insulin resistance.” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 50: B142-B147 (1995)

Cao G, Booth SL, Sadowski JA, and Prior RL. “Increases in human plasma antioxidant capacity after consumption of controlled diets high n fruits and vegetables.” Am J Clin Nutr 68: 1081-1087(1998)

Cao G, Sofic E, and Prior RL. “Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables.” J Agric Food Chem 44: 3426-3431 (1996)

Campbell LA and Smith FJ. “Transient declines in blood glucose signal meal initiation.” Int J Obesity 14: 15-23 (1990)

Cefalu WT, Wagner JD, Wang ZQ, Bell-Farrow AD, Collins J, Haskell D, Bechtold R, and Morgan T. “A study of caloric restriction and cardiovascular aging in cynomolgus monkeys: a potential model for aging research.” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 52: B98-B102 (1997)

Cefalu WT, Wang ZQ, Bell-Farrow AD, Terry JG, Sonntag W, Waite M, and Parks J. “Chronic calori restriction alters muscle membrane fatty acid content.” Exp Gerontology 35: 331-341 (2000)

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Hansen BC, Bodkin NL, and Ortmeyer HK. “Calorie restriction in nonhuman primates: mechanisms of reduced morbidity and mortality.” Toxicology Sci 52 56-60 (1999)

Hansen BC. “Calorie restriction: effects on body composition, insulin signaling and aging.” J Nutr 131: 900S-902S (2001)

Hill EG, Johnson SB, Lawson LD, Mahfouz MM, and Holman RT. “Perturbation of the metabolism of essential fatty acids by dietary partially
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Himaya A, Fantino M, Antoine JM, Brondel L, and Louis-Sylvestre J. “Satiety power of dietary fat: a new appraisal.” Am J Clin Nutr 65: 1410-1410 (1997)

Holt S, Brand J, Soveny C, and Hansky J. “Relationship to satiety toprosprandial glycaemic, insulin and cholecystolkinin responses.” Appetite 8: 129-141 (1992)

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, and Tyalor RH. “Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 362-366 (1981)

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Vukson S, Brighenti F, Cunnane SC, Rao AV, Jenkins AL, Buckley G, and Singer W. “Nibbling versus gorging: metabolic advantages of increased meal frequency.” N Engl J Med 321: 929-934 (1989)

Katan MB, Grundy SM, and Willett WC. “Should a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet be recommended for everyone? Beyond low-fat diets.” N Engl J Med 337: 563-567 (1997)

Kemnitz JW, Roecker EB, Weindruch R, Elson DF, Baum ST, and Bergman RN. “Dietary restriction increases insulin sensitivity and lowers blood glucose in rhesus monkeys.” Am J. Physiol. 266: E540-E547 (1994)

Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R, Roecker EB, Crawford K, Kaufman PL, and Ershler WB. “Dietary restriction of adult male rehsus monkey: design, methodology, and preliminary findings from the first year of study.” J Gerontology 48: B17-B26 (1993)

Kim MJ, Roecher EB, and Weindruch R. “Influences of aging and dietary restriction on red blood cell density profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities in rhesus monkeys.” Exp Gerontology 28: 515-527 (1993)

Laganiere S, and Yu BP. “Anti-lipoperoxidation action of food restriction.” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 45: 1185-1189 (1987)

Laganiere S and Yu BP. “Effect of chronic food restriction in aging rats: liver cytosolic antioxidants and related enzymes.” Mech Ageing Dev 48: 221-226 (1989)

Lampe JW. “Health effects of vegetables and fruit: assessing mechanisms of action in human experimental studies.” Am J Clin Nutr 70: 475S-490S (1999)

Lane MA, Baer DJ, Rumpler WV, Weindruch R, Ingram DK, Tilmont EM, Cutler RG, and Roth GS. “Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.” Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 4159-4164 (1996)

Lane MA, Ball SS, Ingram DK, Culter RG, Engel J, Read V, and Roth GS. “Diet restriction in rhesus monkeys lowers fasting and glucose-stimulated glucoregulatory end points.” Am J Physiol 268: E941-E948 (1993)

Lane MA, Ingram DK, Ball SS, and Roth GS. “Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate: a biomarker of primate aging slowed by calorie restriction.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 2093-2096 (1997)

Lane MA, Reznick AZ, Tilmont EM, Lanir A, Ball SS, Read V, Ingram DK, Culter RG, and Roth GS. “Aging and food restriction alter some indices of bone metabolism in male rhesus monkeys.” J Nutr 125: 1600-1610 (1995)

Lane MA, Tilmont EM, De Angelis H, Handy A, Ingram DK, Kemnitz JW,and Roth GS. “Short-term calorie restriction improves disease-related markers inolder male rhesus monkeys.” Mech Ageing Devel 112: 185-196 (1999)

Lane MA, Ingram DK, and Roth GS. “Calorie restriction in nonhuman primates: effects on diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk.” Toxicological Sci 52: 41-48 (1999)

Lee DW and Yu BP. “Modulation of free radicals and superoxide dimutase by age and dietary restriction.” Aging 2: 357-362 (1991)

Lee C-K, Kloop RG, Weindruch R, and Prolia TA. “Gene expression profile of aging and its restardation by caloric restriction.” Science 285: 1390-1393 (1999)

Li D, Ng A, Mann NJ, and Sinclair AJ. “Contribution of meat fat to dietary arachidondic acid.” Lipids 33: 437-440 (1998)
Liu D, Moberg E, Kollind M, Lins PE, and Admson U. “A high concentration of circulating insulin suppresses the glucagon response to hypoglycemia in normal men.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73: 1123-1128 (1991)

Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, and Roberts SB. “High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity.” Pediatrics 103: E26 (1999)
Louis-Sylvestre J. “Glucose utilization dynamics and food intake.” Br J Nutr 82: 427-429 (1999)

Masoro EJ. “Antiaging action of caloric restriction: endocrine and metabolic aspects.” Obesity Res 3: 241S-247S (1995)

Masoro EJ. “Assessment of nutritional components in prolongation of life and health by diet.” Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 193: 31-34 (1990)

Masoro EJ. “Retardation of aging process by food restriction: an experimental tool.” Am J Clin Nutr 55:1250S-1252 (1992)

Masoro EJ, McCarter RJM, Katz MS, and McMahan, “Dietary restriction alters characteristics of glucose fuel use.” J Gerontol Biol Sci 47: B202-b208 (1992)

Masoro EJ, Yu BP, and Bertrand HA. “Action of food restriction in delaying the aging process.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 4239-4241 (1982)

Masoro EJ. “Caloric restriction and aging.” Exp Gerontol 35: 299-305 (2000)

McCay CM, Crowell MF, and Maynard LA. “The effect of retarded growth upon the length of life span upon the ultimate body size.” J Nutr 10: 63-79 (1935)

McCarty MF. “Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity.” Med Hypothesis 53: 459-485 (1999)

McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Ascherio A, Variyam JN, Spegelman D, Stampfer MJ, and Willett WC. “Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the risk of major chronic disease in men.” Am J Clin Nutr 72: 1223-1231 (2000)

McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Stampfer Mj, Rosner BA, Hu FB, Hunter DJ, Variyam JN, Colditz GA, and Willett WC. “Adherence to DietaryGuidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in women.” Am J Clin Nutr 72: 1214-1222 (2000)

Means LW, Higgins JL, and Fernandez TJ. “Mid-life onset of dietary restriction extends life and prolongs cognitive functioning.” Physiol Behav 54: 503-508 (1993)

Melanson KJ, Weserterp MS, Smith FJ, Campfield LA and SarisWhM. “Blood glucose patterns and appetite intime-blinded humans: carbohydrate versus fat.” Am J Physiol 46: 337-345 (1999)

McManus K, Antinoro L, and Sachs F. “A randomized controlled trial of a moderate-fat, low-energy diet compared with a low fat, low-energy diet for weight loss in overweight adults.” Int J Obesity 25: 1503-1511 (2001)

Mensiak RP and Katan MB. “Effect of monounsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on high-density lipoproteins in health men and women.” Lancet i: 122-125 (1897)

Metges CC, Petzke KJ, and Young VR. “Dietary requirements for indispensable amino acids in adult humans: new concepts, methods of estimation, uncertainities and challenges.” Ann Nutr Metab 43: 267-276 (1999)

Parr T. “Insulin exposure and aging theory.” Gerontology 43: 182-200 (1997)

Parr T. “Insulin exposure controls the rate of mamalian aging.” Mech. Ageing and Develop. 88: 75-82 (1996)

Rissanen T, Voutilainen S, Myyssonen K, Lakka TA, and Salonen JT. “Fish oil-derived fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid, and the risk of acute coronary events.” Circulation 102: 2677-2679 (2000)

Salonen JT, Seppanen K, Lakka TA, Salonen R, and Kaplan GA. “Mercury accumulation and accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis.” Atherosclerosis 148: 265-273 (1999)

Sadur CN and Eckel RH. “Insulin stimulation of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase.” J Clin Invest 69: 1119-1123 (1982)

Schwartz MW, Figlewicz DP, Baskin DG, Woods SC, and Porte D. “Insulin in the brain a hormonal regulation of energy balance.” Endocrine Rev 43: 387-414 (1992)

Sears B. A Week in the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2000)

Sears B. Mastering the Zone. Regan Books, New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. TheSoy Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2000)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. Zone Food Blocks. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Sears B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Skov AR, Toubro S, Renn B, Holm L, and Astrup A. “Randomized trial on protein vs. carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet fro the treatment of obesity.” Int J Obes relat Metab Disord 23: 528-536 (1999)

Sohal RS and Weindruch R. “Oxidative stress, caloric restriction, and aging.”
Science 273: 59-63 (1996)

Soucy J and LeBlanc J. “The effects of a beef and fish meal on plasma amino acids, insulin, and glucagon levels.” Nutr Res 19: 17-24 (1999)

Walford RL, Harris SB, and Gunion MW. “The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol and blood pressure in humans.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 11533-11537 (1992)

Wang H, Cao G, and Prior RL. “Total antioxidant capacity of fruits.” J Agric Food Chem 44: 701-705 (1996)

Weed JL, Lane MA, Roth GS, Speer DL, and Ingram DK. “Activity measures in rhesus monkeys on long-term calorie restriction.” Physiol Behav 62: 97-103 (1997)

Weindruch R. “Caloric restriction and aging.” Sci Am 274: 46-52 (1996)

Weindruch R, Kayo T, Lee C-K, and Prolla TA. “Microarry profiling of gene expression in aging and its alteration by caloric restriction in mice.” J Nutr 131: 918S-923S (2001)

Westphal SA, Gannon MC, and Nutrall FQ. “Metabolic response to glucose ingested with various amounts of protein.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62: 267-272 (1990)

Willett WC. Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy. Simon and Shuster. New York, NY (2001)

Wolfe BMJ and Piche LA. “Replacement of carbohydrate by protein in a conventional-fat diet reduces cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in healthy normolipidemic subjects.” Clin Invest Med 22: 140-148 (1999)
Wolever TMS. “Relationship between dietary fiber content and composition in foods and the glycemic index.” Am J Clin Nutr 51: 72-75 (1990)

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Collier GR, Lee R, Wong GS, and Josse RG. “Metabolic response to test meals containing different carbohydrate foods: relationship between rate of digestion and plasma insulin response.” Nutr Res 8: 573-581 (1988)

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AA, and Josse RG. “The glycemic index: methodology and chemical implications.” Am J Clin Nutr 54: 846-854 (1991)

Wolfe BM and Piche LA. “Replacement of carbohyrate by protein in a conventional-fat diet reduces cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in healthy normolipidemic subjects.” Clin Invest Med 22: 140-148 (1999)

Young VR. “Protein and amino acid requirements in humans.” Scand J Nutr 36: 47-56 (1992)

Young VR, Bier DM, and Pellert PL. “A theoretical basis for increasing current estimates of the amino acid requirements in adult men with experimental support.” Am J Clin Nutr 50: 80-92 (1989)

Chapter 8–Fish Oil Supplements: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

Addison RF, Zinck ME, Ackman RG, and Sipos JC. “Behavior of DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dieldrin at various stages of refining of marine oils for eduble use.” J Am Oil Chem Soc. 55: 391-394. (1978)

Axelrod L, Carnuso J, Williams E, Kleiman K, Briones E, and Schoenfeld D. “Effects of a small quantity of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in NIDDM: a randomized, prospective, double-blind, controlled study.” Diabetes Care 17: 37-44 (1994)

Ballschmiter K and Zell M. “Baseline studies of the global pollution. I. Occurrence of organohalogens in pristine European and antarctic aquatic environments.” Int J Environ Anal Chem 8: 15-35 (1980)

Bang HO and Dyerberg. “Fish consumption and mortality for coronary heart disease.” N Engl J Med 313: 822-823 (1985)

Barber MD and Fearon KCH. “Tolerance and incorporation of a high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid diester emulsionbypatients with pancreatic cancer cachexia.” Lipids 36 347-351 (2001)

Blanck HM, Marcus M, Tolbert PE, Rubin C, Henderson AK, Hertzberg VS, Zhang RH,and Cameron L. “Age at menarch and Tanner stage in girls exposed in utero and postnatally to polybrominated biphenyl.” Epidemiology 11: 641-647 (2000)

Chamberlain JG. “Omega-3 fatty acids and bleeding problems.” Am J Clin Nutr 55: 760 (1992) Clin Nutr 65: 1687S-1698S (1997)

Donnelly SM, Ali MA, and Churchill DN. “Effect ofn-3 fatty acids from fish oil on hemostasis, blood pressure, and lipid profile of dialysis patients.” J Am Soc Nephrol 2: 1634-1639 (1992)

Dyberg J and Bang HO. “Homeostatic function and platelet polyunsaturated fatty acids in Eskimos.” Lance ii: 433-435 (1979)

Eaton SB, Eaton SB, Sinclair AJ, Cordain L, and Mann NJ. “Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the paleolithic.” Worl Rev Nutr Diet (83: 12-23 (1998)

Eaton SB. “An evolutionary view of dietary recommendations.” National Institutes of Health w orkshop on the essentiality of and dietary reference intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. (1999)

Eritsland J, Arnesen H, Gronseth K, Fjeld NB, and Abdelnoor M. “Effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acid on coronary artery bypass graft patency.” Am J Cardiol 77: 31-36 (1996)

Eritsland J. “Safety considerations of polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 197S-201S (2000)

Eritsland J, Arnesen H, Seljeflot I, and Kierulf P. “Long-term effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on haemonstatic variables and bleeding episodes in patients with coronary artery disease.” Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 6: 17-22 (1995)

Fed Regist. Substances affirmed as generally recognized as safe: menhaden oil. 62: 30751-30757 (1997)

Fairchild WL, Swansburg EO, Arsenault JT, and Brown SB. “Does an association between pesticide use and subsequent declines in catch of Atlantic salmon represent a case of endorcrine distruption.?” Envion Health Perspect 107: 349- 358 (1999)

Freidberg CE, Janssen MJ, Heine RJ, and Grobbee DE. “Fish oil and glycemic control in diabetes: a meta analysis.” Diabetes Care 19: 21: 494-500 (1998)

Gluaber H, Wallace P, Griver K, and Brechtel G. “Adverse metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in non-insulin diabetes mellitus.” Ann Intern Med 108: 663-668 (1988)

Goodnight SH, Harris WS, andConnor WE. “The effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on platelet composition and function in man: a prospective, controlled study.” Blood 58: 880-885 (1981)

Harris WS, Windsor SL, andDujovne CA. “Effects of four doses of n-3 fatty acids given to hyperlipidemic patients for six months.” J Am Coll Nutr 10: 220-227 (1991)

Haglund O, Wallin R, Luostarinen R, and Saldeen T. “Effects of a new fluid fishoil concentration on triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen and blood pressure.” J Intern Med 227: 347-353 (1990)

Haumann BF. “Alternative sources for n-3 fatty acids.” Inform 9: 1108-1119 (1998)

Hilbert G, Lillemark L, Balchen S, and Hojskov CS. “Reduction of organochlorine contaminants from fish oil during refining.”
Chemosphere. 37: 1241-1252 (1998)

Horrocks LA and Yeo YK. “Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Pharmacol Res 40: 211-225 (1999)

Jacobs MN, Santillo D, Johnston PA, Wyatt CL, and French MC. “Organochlorine residues in fish oil dietary supplements: comparison with industrial grade oils Chemosphere. 37: 1709-1721 (1998)

Jorgensen K-A, Nielsen AH, and Dyerberg J. “Hemostatic factors and rennin in Greenland Eskimos on a high eicosapentaenoic acid intake.” Acta Med Scand 219: 473-479 (1986)

Knapp HR. “Dietary fatty acids in human thrombosis and hemostasis.” Am J

Knapp HR, Reilly IAG, Alessandrini P, and FitzGerald GA. “In vivo indexes of platelet and vascular function during fish-oil administration in patients with atherosclerosis.” N. Engl J Med 314: 937-942 (1986)

Leaf A, Jorgenson MB, Jacobs AK et al “Do fish oils prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty.” Circulation 90: 2248-2257 (1994)

Li D, Mann NJ, and Sinclair AJ. “Comparison of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from vegetable oils, meat and fish in raising platelet eicosaspentaenoic acid levels in humans.” Lipids 34: S309 (1999)

Mueller, BA, Talker RL, Tegeler CH, and Prihoda TJ. “The bleeding time effects of a single dose of aspirin in subjects receiving omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplementation.” J Clin Pharmacol 31: 185-190 (1991)

Nelson GJ, Schmidt PS, Bartolini GL, Kelley DS, and Kyle D. “The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on platelet function, platelet fatty acid composition, and blood coagulation in humans.” Lipids 32: 1129-1136 (1997)

Parkinson AJ, Cruz AL, Heyward WL, Bulkow LR, Hall D, Barstae L, and Connor WE. “Elevated concentrations of plasma omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids among Alaskan Eskimos.” Am J Clin Nutr 59: 383-388 (1994)

Pedersen HS, Muvad G, Sedelin KN, Malcom GT, and Boudreau DA. “N-3 fatty acids as a risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke.” Lancet 353: 812-813 (1999)

Raz A, Kamin-Belsky N, Przedecki F, and Obukowicz M. “Dietary fish oil inhbits delta-6 desaturase activity in vivo.” J Am Oil Chem Soc 75: 241-245 (1998)

Rissanen T, Voutilainen S, Nyyssonen K, Lakka TA, and Salonen JT. “Fish oil-derived fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic
acid, and the risk of acute coronary events: the Kuopio ischaemic heart
disease risk factor study.” Circulation 102: 2677-2679 (2000)

Rivellese AA, Maffettone A, Iovine C, Di Marino L, Annuzzi G, Mancini M, and Riccardi G. “Long-term effects of fish oil on insulin resistance and plasma lipoproteins in NIDDM patients with hypertriglyceridemia.” Diabetes Care 19: 1207-1213 (1996)

Rogan WJ. “Persistent pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls.”
Annu Rev Public Health. 4: 381-390 (1983)
Sargent JR. “Fish oil and human diet.” Br J Nutr 78: S5-S13 (1997)

Sims GG, Cosham CE, Campbell JR, and Murray MC. “DDT residues in cod livers from the Maritime Provinces of Canada.”
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 14: 505-512 (1975)

Simpoulos AP. “Reply to J.G. Chamberlain” Am J Clin Nutr 55: 760-761 (1992)

Simpolulos AP, Leaf A, and Salem N. “Workshop on the essentiality of recommended dietary intakes of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.” J Am Coll Nutr 18: 487-489 (1999)

Sirtori CR, Paoletti R, Mancini M, Crepaldi G, Manzato E, Rivellese A, Pamparana F, and Stragliotto E. “n-3 fatty acid do not lead to an increased diabetic rsik in patients with hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose tolerance: Italian fish oil multicenter trial.” Am J Clin Nutr 65: 1874-1881 (1997)
Thies F, Nebe-von-Caron G, Powell JR, Yaqoob P, Newsholme EA, and Calder PC. “Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, but not with other long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects aged >55 y.”
Am J Clin Nutr 73: 539-548 (2001)

Tsigouri AD and Tyrpenou AE. “Determination of organochlorine compounds (OCPs and PCBs) in fish oil and fish liver oil by capillary gas chromatography and electron capture detection.” Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 65: 244-252 (2000)

Van Vilet T and Katan MB. “Lower ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids in cultured thanin wild fish” Am J Clin Nutr 51: 1-2 (1990)

Yamada T, Strong JP, Ishii T, Ueno T, Koyama M, Wagayama H, Shimizu A, Sakai T, Malcom GT, and Guzman MA. “Atherosclerosis and omega-3 fatty acids in the populations of fishing village and a farming village in Japan.” Athero 153: 469-481 (2000)

Zuijdgeest-van Leeuwen SD, Dagnelie PC, Rietveld T, van den Berg JW, and Wilson JH. “Incorporation and washout of orally adminsistered n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in different plasma lipid fractions.” Br J Nutr 82: 481-488 (1999)

Chapter 9–Your Blood Will Tell Your Future. Do You Really Want to Know?

Allred JB. “Too much of a good thing? An over-emphasis on eating low-fat food may be contributing to the alarming increase in overweight amounts of US adults.” J Am Dietetic Assoc 95: 417-418 (1995)

Boizel R, Benhhamou PY, Lardy B, Laporte F, Foulon T, and Halmi S. “Ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol is an indicator of LDL particle size in patients with type 2 diabetes and normal HDL cholesterol levels.” Diabetes Care 23 1679-1683 (2000)

Colditz GA. “Economic costs of obesity.” Am J Clin Nutr 55: 503S-507S (1992)

Corti M-C, Guraink JM, Saliva ME, Harris T, Field TS, Wallace RB, Berkman LF, Seeman TE, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH, and Havlik RJ. “HDL cholesterol predicts coronary heart disease mortality in older persons.” JAMA 274:539-544 (1995)

Drexel H, Amann FW, Beran J, Rentsch K, Candinas R, Muntwyler J, Leuthy A, Gasser T, and Follath F. “Plasma triglycerides and three lipoprotein cholesterol fractions are independent predictors of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis.” Circulation 90:2230-2235 (1992)

Gould KL. “Very low-fat diets for coronary heart disease: perhaps, but which one?” JAMA 275: 1402-1403 (1996)

Gould KL, Ornish D, Scherwitz L, Brown S., Edens RP, Hess MJ, Mullani Z, Bolomey L, Dobbs F, Armstrong WT, Merritt T, Potts T, Sparler S, and Billings J. “Changes in myocardial perfusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography after long-term, intense risk factor modification.” JAMA 274: 894-901 (1995)

Hamm P, Shekelle RB, and Stamler J. “Large fluctuations in body weight during young adulthood and 25-years risk of coronary death in men.” Am J Epidemiology 129: 312-318 (1989)

Heini AF and Weinsier RL. “Divergent trends in obesity and fat intake patterns: an American paradox.” Am J Med 102: 259-264 (1997)

Holman RT, Smythe L, and Johnson S. “Effect of sex and age on fatty acid composition of human serum lipids.” Am J Clin Nutr 32 2390-2399 (179)

Jeppesen J, Hein HO, Suadicani P, and Gyntelber F. “Low triglyercides-high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk of ischemic heart disease.” Arch Intern Med 161: 361-366 (2001)

Kaczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, Comptede SM, Johnson CL. “Increasing prevalence of overweight among U.S. adults.” JAMA 272: 205-239 (1994)

Kagawa Y, Nishizawa M, Suzuki M, Miyatake T, Hamamoto T, Goto K, Montaonga E, Izumikawa H, Hirata H, and Eibhara A. “Eicosapolyenoic acids of serum lipids of Japanese islanders with incidence of cardiovascular diseases.” J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 28: 441-453 (1982)

Knopp RH “Serum lipids after a low-fat diet.” JAMA 279: 1345-1346 (1998)

Knopp RH, Walden CE, Retzlaff BM, McCann BS, Dowdy AA, Albers JJ, Gey GO, and Copper MN. “Long-term cholesterol-lowering effects of 4 fat-restricted diets in hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic men.” JAMA 278: 1509-1515 (1997)

Kris-Etherton PM, Pearson TA, Wan Y, Hargrove RL, Moriarty K, Fishell V, and Etherton TD. “High-monounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglcyerol concentrations.” Am J Clin Nutr 70: 1009-1015 (1999)

Kuczmarshi RJ, Flegal KM, Campbell, SM and Joshnson CL. “Increasing revalence of overweight among U.S. adults.” JAMA 272: 205-211 (1994)

Lamarche B, Lemieux I, and Despres JP. “The small dense phenotype and the risk of coronary heart disease epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic aspects.” Diabetes Metab 25: 199-211 (1999)

Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Mauriege P, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, Lupien PJ, and Despres JP. “Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein levels as a predictor as risk factors for ischemic heart disease.” JAMA 279: 1955-1961 (1998)

Laakso M. “How good a marker is insulin level for insulin resistance?” Am J Epidemiol 137: 959-965 (1993)

Laws A, King AC, Haskell WL, and Reaven GM. “Relation of fasting plasma insulin concentrations to high density lipoprotein cholesterol and trigylceride concentrations in man.” Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 11: 1636-1642 (1991)

Lee IM and Paffenbarger RS. “Change in body weight and longevity.” JAMA 268: 2045-2049 (1992)

Lee HY, Woo J, Chen ZY, Leung SF, and Peng XH. “Serum fatty acid, lipid profiles and dietary intake of Hong Kong Chinese omnivores and vegetarians.” Eur J Clin Nutr 54: 768-773 (2000)

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Lichtenstein AH and van Horn L. “Very low fat diets.” Circulation 98: 935-939 (1998)

Markovic TP, Fleury AC, Campbell LV, Simons LA, Balasubramanian S, Chisholm DJ, and Jenkins AB. “Benefical effect on average lipid levels from energy restriction and fat loss in obese individuals with or without Type 2 diabetes.” Diabetes Care 21: 695-700 (1998)

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Mathers CD, Sadana R, Salomon JA, Murray CJL, and Lopez AD. “Healthy life expectancy in 191 countries, 1999.” Lancet 357: 1685-1691 (2001)

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Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, Billilngs JH, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, McLanahan SM, Kirkeeide RL, Brand RJ, and Gould KL. “Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?” Lancet 336: 129-133 (1990)

Parkinson AJ, Cruz AL Heyward WL, Bukow LR, Hall D, Barstaed L, and Connor WE. “Elevated concentrations of plasma omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids amoung Alaskan Eskimos.” Am J Clin Nutr 59: 384-388 (1994)

Patch JR, Miesenbock G, Hopferwieser T, Muhlberger V, Knapp E, Dunn JK, Gotto AM, and Patsch W. “Relation of triglyceride metabolism and coronary artery disease.” Atrteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 12:1336-1345 (1992)

Pouliot MC, Depres J-P, Nadeau A, Moorjani S, Prud’Homme D, Lupien PJ, Tremblay A, and Bouchard C. “Visceral obesity in men: associations with glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and lipoprotein levels.” Diabetes 41: 826-834 (1992)

Reaven GM, Chen YD, Jeppesen J, Maheux P, and Krauss RM. “Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in individuals with small, dense low density lipoproteins.” J Clin Invest 92: 141-146 (1993)

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Yamada T, Strong JP, Ishii T, Ueno T, Koyama M, Wagayama H, Shimizu A, Sakai T, Malcom GT, and Guzman MA. “Atherosclerosis and omega-3 fatty acids in the populations of fishing village and a farming village in Japan.” Athero 153: 469-481 (2000)

Yeni-Komshian H, Carntoni M, Abbasi F, and Reaven GM. “Relationship between several surrogate estimates of insulin resistance and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 490 healthy nondiabetic volunteers.” Diabetes Care 23: 171-175 (2000)

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PART 3. Disease Treatment in the OmegaZone

Chapter 10–When the Brain Goes Wrong

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Ahmann PA, Waltonen SJ, Olson KA, Theye FW, van Erem AJ, and LePlant RJ.” Placebo-controlled evaluation of Ritalin side effects.” Pediatrics 91: 1101-1106 (1993)

Aisen PS. “Anti-inflammatory therapy for Alzheimer’s disease.” Neurobiol Aging 21: 447-448 (2000)

Akiyama H, Arai T, Kondo H, Tanno E, Haga C, and Ikeda K. “Cell mediators of inflammation in the Alzheimer disease brain.” Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 14: S47-S53 (2000)

Aisen PS. “Anti-inflammatory therapy for Alzheimer’s disease: implication of the prednisone trial.” Acta Neurol Scand 176: 85-89 (2000)

Alvarez JC, Cremniter D, Lesieur P, Gregoire A, Gilton A, Macquin-Mavier I, Jarreu C, and Spreux-Varoquaux O. “Low blood cholesterol and low platelet serotonin levels in violent suicide attempters.” Bio Psychiatry 45: 1066-1069 (1999)

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Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, Abate ML, Watkins BA, Lipp SR, and Burgess JR “Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.” Am J Clin Nutr 62: 761-768 (1995)

Burgress JR, Stevens L,and Peck L. “Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 327S-330S (2000)

Bush G, Frazier JA, Rauch SL, Seidman LJ, Whalen PJ, Jenike MA, Rosen BR, and Biederman J. “Anterior cingulated cortex dysfuction in attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder revealed by fMRI and the counting stroop.” Biol Psychiarty 45: 1542-1552 (1999)

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Centonze D, Calabresi P, Giacomini P, and Berardi G. “Neurophysiology of Parkinson’s disease: from basic research to clinical correlates.” Clin Neurophysiology 110: 2006-2013 (1999)

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Connor WE , Neuringer M, and Reisbick S. “Essential fatty acids: importance of n-3 fatty acids in the retina and brain.” Nutr Rev 50: 21-29 (1992)

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Ensel M, Milon H, and Malnoe A. “Effect of low intake of n-3 fatty acids during development of brain phospholipid, fatty acid composition and exploratory behavior in rats.” Lipids 26: 203-208 (1991)

FentonWS, Hibbeln J, and Knable M. “Essential fatty acids, lipid membrane abnormalities,and the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia.” Bio Psychiarty 47: 8-21 (2000)

Fernstrom JD. “Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on neuronal function.” Lipids 34: 161-169(1999)

Freychet P. “Insulin receptors and insulin actions in the nervous system.” Diabetes Metab Res Rev 16: 390-392 (2000)

Gayo A, Mozo L, Suarez A, Tunon A, Lahoz C, and Gutierrez C. “Inteferon beta treatment modulates TNF and interferon gamma spontaneous gene expression in MS.” Neurology 52: 1764-1770 (1999)

Gallai V, Sarchielli P, Trequattrini A, Franceschini M, Floridi A, Firenze
C, Alberti A, Di Benedetto D, andStragliotto E. “Cytokine secretion and eicosanoid production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients undergoing dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated
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Gibson RA, Neuman MA, and Makrides M. “Effect of dietary docosahexenoic acid on brain compostion and neural function in term infants.” J Lipid Res 34: S177-S181 (1996)
Glueck CJ, Tieger M, Kunkel R, Tracy T, Speirs J, Streicher P, and Illig E. “Improvement in symptoms of depression and in an index of life stressors accompany treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia.” Biol Psycharity 34: 240-252 (1993)

Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Itomura M, Asaoka E, Nagao Y, Nishimura N, Yazawa K, Kuwamori T, and Kobayashi M. “The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults.” J Clin Invest 97: 1129-1134 (1996)

Hamaszki T, Sawazaki S, Itomura M, Nagao Y, Thienprasert A., Nagasawa T, and Watanabe S. “Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on hostility.” World Rev Nutr Diet 88: 47-52 (2001)

Harvey BH and Bouwer CD. “Neuropharmacology of paradoxic weight gain with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.” Clinica Neuropharm 23: 90-97 (2000)

Hibbeln JR and Salem N. “Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: when cholesterol does not satisfy.” Am J Clin Nutr 62: 1-9 (1995)

Hibbeln JR. “Fish consumption and major depression.” Lancet 351: 1213 (1998)

Hibbeln JR. “Seafood consumption and homicide mortality.” World Rev Nutr Diet 88: 41-46 (2001)

Hohlfeld R and Wiendl H. “The ups and downs of multiple sclerosis therapeutics.” Ann Neurology 49: 281-284 (2001)

Holman RT, Johnson SB, and Ogburn PL. “Deficiency of essential fatty acids and membrane fluidity during pregnancy and lactation.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 4835-4839 (1991)

Horrobin DF . “Essential fatty acids, prostaglandins, and alcoholism: an overview.” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 11: 2-9 (1987)

Hoozemans JJM, Rozemuller AJM, Janssen I, De Groot CJA, Veerhuls R, and Eikelenboon P. “Cyclooxygenase expression in microglia and neurons in Alzheimer’s disease and control brain.” Acta Neuropathol 101: 2-8 (2001)

Hoozemans JJM, Veerhuis R, Janssen I, Rozemuler AJM, and Eikelenboom P. “Interleukin-1 beta induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression and prostaglandinE2 secretion by human neroblastoma cells: implications for Alzheimer’s disease.” Exp Gerontology 36: 559-570 (2001)

Holden RJ, Pakula IS, and Mooney PA. “The role of brain insulin n the neurophysiology of serious mental disorders: review.” Med Hypothesis 52: 193-200 (1999)

Ichiyama T, Okada K, Lipton JM, Matsubara T, Hayashi T, and Furukawa S. “Sodium valproate inhibits production of TNF and IL-6 and activation of NF-kappa B.” Brain Res 857: 246-251 (2000)

Ikemoto A, Nitta A, Furukawa S, Ohishi M, Nakamure A, Fujii Y, and Okuyama H. “Dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency decreases nerve growth factor content in rat hippocampus.” Neurosci Lett 285: 99-102 (2000)

Iso H, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rexrode K, Hu F, Hennekens CH, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, and Willett WC. “Prospective study of fat and protein intake and risk of intraparenchymal hemorrhage in women.” Circulation 103: 856-863 (2001)

Kalmijn S, Foley D, White L, Burchfiel CM, Curb JD, Petrovitch H,Ross GW, Havlik RJ, and Launer LJ. “Metabolic cardiovascular syndrome and risk of dementia in Japanese-American elderly men.” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20: 2255-2260 (2000)

Kademi M, Wallstrom E, Andersson M, Piehl F, Di Marco R, and Olsson T. “Reduction of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after 6 months of interferon beta-1a treatment of multiple sclerosis.” J Neurochem 103: 202-210 (2000)

Kawas CH and Brookmeyer R. “Aging and the public health: effects of dementia.” N Engl J Med 344 1160-1161 (2001)

Knapp HR, Reilly IAG, Alessandrini P, and FitzGerald GA. “In vivo indexes of platelet and vascular function during fish-oil administration in patients with atherosclerosis.” N. Engl J Med 314: 937-942 (1986)

Kyle DJ, Schaefer E, Patton G, and Beiser A. “Low serum docosahexaenoic acid is a significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s dementia.” Lipids 34: S245 (1999)

Lauritzen I, Blondeau N, Heurteaux C, Widmann C, Romey G, and Lazdunski M. “Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors.” EMBO J 19: 1784-1793 (2000)

Lauritzen L, Hansen HS, Jorgensen MH, and Michaelsen KF. “The essentially of long chain n-3 fatty acids in relation to development and function of the brain and retina.” Prog Lipid Res 40: 1-94 (2001)

Maes M. “Fatty acid composition in major depression: decreased n-3 fractions in cholesterol esters and increased C20:n6/C20:5n3 ratio in cholesterol ester and phospholipids.” J Affect Dis 38: 35-46 (1996)

Maes M, Christophe A, Delanghe J, Altamura C, Neels, H, and Meltzer HY. “Lowered omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholpids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients.” Pscyhiarty Res 85: 275-291 (1999)
Manev H, Tolga U, Sugaya K, and Qu T. “Putative role of neuronal 5-lipoxygenase in an aging brain.” FASEB J 14: 1464-1469 (2000)

Mayeux R, Costa R, Bell K, Merchant C, Tung MX, and Jacobs D. “Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease among individuals with low caloric intake.” Neurology 59: S296-S297 (1999)

McGeer PL, Shulzer M, and McGeer EG. “Arthritis and anti-inflammatory agents as possible protective factors for Alzheimer’s disease: a review of 17 epidemiological studies.” Neurology 47: 425-432 (1996)

McGeer PL, McGeer EG, and Yasojima K. “Alzheimer disease and neuroinflammation.” J Neural Transm 59: 53-57 (2000)

Mills DE, Prkochin KM, Harvey KA, and Ward RP. “Dietary fatty acid supplementation alters stress reactivity and performance in man.” J Human Hypertension 3: 111-116 (1989)

Minami M, Kimura S, Endo T, Hamaue N, Hirafuji M, Togashi H, Matsujoto M, Yoshika M, Saito H, Watanabe S, Kobayashi T, and Okuyama H. “Dietary docosahexaenoic acid increases cerebral acetylcholine levels and improves passive avoidance performance in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 58: 1123-1129 (1997)

Miyanga K, Yonemura K, Takagi T, Kifune R, Kishi Y, Miyakawa F, Yazawa K, and Shirota Y. “Clinical effects of DHA in demented patients.” J Clin Ther Med 11: 881-901 (1995)

Mischoulon D and Fava M. “Docosahexanoic acid and omega-3 fatty acids in depression.” Psychiatr Clin North Am 23: 785-794 (2000)

Montine TJ, Sidell KR, Crews BC, Markesbery WR, Marnett LJ, RobertsLJ, and Morrow JD. “Elevated CSF prostaglandin E2 levels in patients with probable AD.” Neurology 53: 1495-1498 (1999)

Moriguchi T, Greiner RS, and Salem N Jr. “Behavioral deficits associated with dietary induction of decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid concentration.” J Neurochem 75: 2563-2573 (2000)

Moses H and Sriram S. “Interferon beta and the cytokine trial. Where are we going?” Neurology 52: 1729-1730 (1999)

Nagatsu T, Mogi M, Ichinose H, and Togari A. “Cytokines in Parkinson’s disease.” J Neural Transm 58: 143-151 (2000)

Nelson GJ, Schmidt PS, Bartolini GL, Kelley DS, and Kyle D. “The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on platelet function, platelet fatty acid composition, and blood coagulation in humans.” Lipids 32: 1129-1136 (1997)

Neuroinflammation Working Group. “Inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease.” Neurobiology Aging 21: 383-421 (2000)

Nightingale S, Woo E, Smith AD, French JM, Gale MM, Sinclair HM, Bates D, and Shaw DA “Red blood cell and adipose tissue fatty acids in active and inactive multiple sclerosis patients.” Acta Neurol Scand 82: 43-50 (1990)

Nordvik I, Myhr K-M, Nyland H, and Bjerve KS. “Effect of dietary advice and n-3 supplementation in newly diagnosed MS patients.” Act Neurol Scand 102: 143-149 (2000)

Pasinetti GM and Aisen PS. “Cyclooxygenase -2 expressin is increased in frontal cortex of Alzheimer’s disease brain.” Neuroscience 87: 319 324 (1997)

Pawlosky RJ and Salem N. “Ethanol exposure causes a decrease in docosahexanenoic acid and an increase in docosapentaenoic acid in feline brain and retina.” Am J Clin Nutr 61: 1284-1289 (1995)

Peet M. “Essential fatty acid deficiency in erthrocyte membranes from chronic schizophrenic patients and clinical effects of dietary supplementation.” Pros Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids 55: 71-75 (1996)

Peet M, Brind J, Ramchand CN, Shah S, and Vankar GK.
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Pratico D and Rojanowski JQ. “Inflammatory hypothesis: novel mechanisms of Alzheimer’s neurodegradation and new therapeutic targets?” Neurobiology Aging 21: 441-445 (2000)

Rasmuson S, Andrew R, Nasman B, Seckl JR, Walker BR, and Olsson T. “Increased glucocorticoid production and altered cortisol metabolism in women with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.” Bio Psychiarty 49: 547-552 (2001)

Remarque EJ, Bollen ELEM, Weverling-Rijnsburger AWE, Laterveer JC, Blauw GJ, and Westendorp RGJ. “Patients with Alzheimer’s disease display a pro-inflammatory phenotype.” Exp Gerontology 36: 171-176 (2001)

Reisbick S, Neuringer M, Hasnain R, and Connor WE. “Home cage behavior of rhesus moneky with long-term deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids.” Physiol Behav 55: 231-239 (1994)

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Stewart WF, Kawas C, Corrada M, and Metter EJ. “Risk of Alzhemier’s disease and duration of NSAID use.” Neurology 48: 626-632 (1997)

Stoll AL. The Omega-3 Connection. Simon and Shuster. New York, NY (2001)

Stoll AL and Severus E. “Mood stabilizers: shared mechanisms of action at post-synaptic signal transduction and kindling process.” Harvard Rev of Psychiarty 59: 915-920 (1999)

Stoll AL, Sverus E, freeman MP, Rueter S, Zhoyan HA, Diamond E, Cress KK, and Marangell LB. “Omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar depression: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” Arch Gen Psychiarty 56: 407-412 (1999)

Seung Kim HF, Weeber EJ, Sweatt JD, Stoll AL, and Marangell LB. “Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on protein kinase C activity in
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Tanner CM. “Dopamine agonists in early therapy. Promise and problems.” JAMA 284: 19711973 (2000)

Tanskanen A. “Fish consumption, depression, and suicidality in a general population.” Arch Gen Psychiarty 58: 512-513 (2001)

Tatton WG, Wadia JS, Ju WY, Chalmers-Redman RM, and Tatton NA. “Deprenyl reduces neuroal apoptosis andfaciliates neuronal outgrowth by altering protein synthesis without inhibiting monoamine oxidase.” J Neural Transm 48: 45-59 (1996)

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Uauy R, Peirano P, Hoffman D, Mena P, Birch D, and Birch E. “Role of essential fatty acids in the function of the developing nervous system.” Lipids 31: S167-S176 (1996)

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Zuijdgeest-van Leeuwen SD, Dagnelie PC, Rietveld T, van den Berg JW, and Wilson JH. “Incorporation and washout of orally adminsistered n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in different plasma lipid fractions.” Br J Nutr 82: 481-488 (1999)

Chapter 11–Who Wants to Die of a Heart Attack?

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Chapter 12–Cancer: Your Greatest Fear

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Germain E, Lavandier F, Chajes V, Schubnel V, Bonnet P, Lhuillery C, and Bougnoux P. “Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxidants increase rat mammary tumor sensitivity to epirubicin without change in cardiac toxicity.” Lipids 34: S203. (1999)

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Ghost J and Myers CE. “Arachidonic acid metabolism and cancer of the prostate.” Nutrition 14: 48-57 (1998)

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Gogos CA, Ginopoulos P, Salsa B, Apostolidou E, Zoumbos NC, and Kalfarentzos F. “Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids plus vitamin E restore immunodeficiency and prolong survival for severely ill patients with generalized malignancy: a randomized control trial.” Cancer 1998 82: 395-402 (1998)

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Karmali R. “n-3 fatty acids: biochemical actions in cancer.”
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Gerbi A., Maixent J-M, Ansaldi J-L, Pierlovisi M, Coste T, Pelissier J-F, Vague P, and Raccah D. “Fish oil supplementation prevents diabetes-induced nerve conduction velocity and neuroanatomical changes in rats.” J Nutr 129: 207-213 (1999)

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Markovic TP, Jenkins AB, Campbell LV, Furler SM, Kragen EW, and Chisholm DJ. “The determinants of glycemic responses to diet restriction and weight loss in obesity and NIDDM.” Diabetes Care 21: 687-694 (1998)

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Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJ.
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Nichols GA, Glauber HS, and Brown JB. “Type 2 diabetes: incremental medical care costs during the 8 years preceding diagnosis.” Diabetes Care 23: 1654-1659 (2000)

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Seidell JC. “Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes-a worldwide epidemic.” Brit J Nutr 83: S5-S8 (2000)

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Storlien LH, Pan DA, Kriketos AD, O’Connor J, Caterson ID, Cooney GJ, Jenkins AB, and Baur LA. “Sketetal muscle membrane lipids and insulin resistance.” Lipids 31: S261-S265 (1996)

Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Chisholm DJ, Pascoe WS, Khour S, and Kragen EW. “Influence of dietary fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats. Relationship to muscle triglycerides and omega-3 fatty acids in muscle phospholipids.” Diabetes 40: 280-289 (1991)

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Vinik AI, Park TS, Stansberry KB, and Pittenger GL. “Diabetic neuropathies.” Diabetologia 43: 957-973 (2000)

Visser M, bouter LM, McQuillan GM, Wener MH, and Harris TB. “Elevated C-reactive protein levels in overweight and obese adults.” JAMA 282: 2131-2315 (1999)

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Wojtaszewski JRP, Hansen BF, Gade J, Kiena B, Markuna JF, Goodyear LJ, and Richter EA. “Insulin signaling and insulin sensitivity after exercise in human skeletal muscle.” Diabetes 49: 325-331 (2000)

Willett WC. “Is dietary fat a major source of body fat?” Am J Clin Nutr 67: 556S-562S (1998)

Willett WC. “Dietary fat and obesity: an unconvincing relation.” Am J Clin Nutr 68: 1149-1150 (1998)

Yudkin JS, Stehouwer CDA, Emeis JJ,and Coppack SW. “C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction-a potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue?” Arterioscler Thromb Vas Biol 19: 972-978 (1999)

Yudkin JS, Kumari M, Humphries Se, and Modamed-Ali V. “Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link?” Atherosclerosis 148: 209-214 (2000)

Chapter 14–Why Does It Hurt?: Pain and Inflammation

American Academy of Allergy. Asthma. (1997)

Arend WP. “Cytokines and cellular interactions in inflammatory synovitis.” J Clin Invest 10&; 1081-182 (2001)

Ariza-Ariza R, Mestanza-Peralta M, and Cardiel MH. “Omega-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis: an overview.” Semin Arthritis Rheum 27: 366-370 (1998)

Babcok T, Helton WS, and Espat NJ. “Eicosapentaenoic acid: an anti- inflammatory omega-3 fat with potential clinical applications.” Nutr 16: 1116-1118 (2000)

Bechoua S, Dubois M, Nemoz G, Chapy P, Vericel E, Lagarde M,and Prigent AF. “Very low dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids affects the immune function of healthy elderly people.” Lipids 34: S143 (1999)

Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M, Pera A, Boschi S, and Miglioli M. “Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn’s disease.” N Engl J Med 354: 1557-1560 (1996)

Belluzzi A, Boschi S, Brignola C, Munarini A, Cariani G, and Miglio F. “Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory bowel disease.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 339S-42S (2000)

Black PN and Sharpe S. “Dietary fat and asthma: is there a connection?” Eur Respir J 10: 6-12 (1997)

Blok WL, Katan MB, and van der Meer JW. “Modulation of inflammation and cytokine production by dietary (n-3) fatty acids.” J Nutr 126: 1515-1533 (1996)

Broughton KS, Johnson CS, Pace BK, Liebman M, and Kleppinger KM. “Reduced asthma symptoms with n-3 fatty acid ingestion are related to 5-series leukotriene production.” Am J Clin Nutr 65: 1011-1017 (1997)

Brown SA, Brown CA, Crowell WA, Barsanti JA, Allen T, Cowell C, and Finco DR. “Beneficial effects of chronic adminstration of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dogs with renal insufficiency.” J Clin Lab Med 131: 447-455 (1998)

Brown SA, Brown CA, Crowell WA, Barsanti JA, Kang C-W, Allen T, Cowell C, and Finco DR. “Effects of dietarypolyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in early renal insufficiency in dogs.” J Lab Clin Med 135: 275-286 (2000)

Calder PC. “n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease.” Ann Nutr Metab 41: 203-234 (1997)

Calder PC. “n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity.” Nutr Res 21: 309-341 (2001)

Chandrasekar B and Fernandes G. “Decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased antioxidant enzyme gene expression by omega-3 lipids in murine lupus nephritis.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200(2): 893-898 (1994)

Clark WF, Parbtani A, Naylor CD, Levinton CM, Muirhead N, Spanner E,Huff MW, Philbrick DJ, and Holub BJ. “Fish oil in lupus nephritis: clinical findings and methodological implications.” Kidney Int 44: 75-86 (1993)

Cleland LG, French JK, Betts WH, Murphy GA, and Elliott MJ. “Clinical and biochemical effects of dietary fish oil supplements in rheumatoid arthritis.” J Rheumatol 15: 1471-1475 (1988)

Das UN. “Beneficial effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanenoic acids in the management of systemic erthematosus and its relationship to the cytokine network.” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 51: 207-o213 (1994)

Donadio JV, bergstralh EJ, Offord KP, Spencer DC,a nd Holley KE. “A controlled trial of fish oil in IgA nephropathy.” N Engl J Med 331:m 1194-1199 (1994)

Donadio JV, Grande JP, Bergstralh EJ, Dart RA, Larson TS, and Spencer DC. “The long-term outcome of patients with IgA nephropathy treated with fish oil in a controlled trial.” J Am Soc Nephrol 10: 1772-1777 (1999)

DeLuca P, Rossetti RG, Alavian C, Karim P, and Zurier RB. “Effects of gammalinolenic acid on interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis
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Endres S. “Messengers and mediators: interactions among lipids, eicosanoids, and cytokines.” Am J Clin Nutr 57: 798S-800S (1993)

Endres S. “n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human cytokine synthesis.”
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Endres S and von Schacky C. “n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human cytokine synthesis.” Curr Opin Lipidol 7: 48-52. (1996)

Endres S, Ghorbani R, Kelley VE, Georgilis K, Lonnemann G, van der Meer JW, Cannon JG, Rogers TS, Klempner MS, Weber PC, et al. “The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on
the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells.” N Engl J Med 320: 265-271 (1989)

Endres S, Lorenz R, and Loeschke K. “Lipid treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2: 117-20 (1999

Endres S, Sinha B, and Eisenhut T. “Omega 3 fatty acids in the regulation of cytokine synthesis.” World Rev Nutr Diet 76: 89-94. (1994)

Espersen GT, Grunnet N, Lervang HH, Nielsen GL, Thomsen BS, Faarvang KL, Dyerberg J, and Ernst E. “Decreased interleukin-1 beta levels in plasma from rheumatoid arthritis patients after dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Clin Rheumatol. 11: 393-395 (1992)

Fernades G, Friend P, Yunis EJ, and Good RA. “Influence of dietary restriction on immunologic function and renal disease in (NZBxNZW) F1 mice.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 1500-1504 (1978)
Fox DA. “Cytokine blockade as a new strategy to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor.” Arch Intern Med 160 437-444 (2000)

Gennuso J, Epstein LH, Paluch R, and Cerny F. “The relationship between asthma and obesity in urban minority children and adolescents.” Arch Pediatri Adolesc 152: 1197-1200 (1998)

Geusens P, Wouters C, Nijs J, Jiang Y, and Dequeker J. “Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A 12-month, double-blind, controlled study.” Arthritis Rheum 37: 824-829 (1994)

Goldber DL. “Fibromyalgia syndrome a decade later. What have we learned?” Arch Intern Med 159: 777-785 (1999)

Hodge L, Salome CM, Peat JK, Haby MM, Xuan W, and Woolcock AJ. “Consumption of oily fish and childhood asthma risk.” Med J Aust 164: 137-140 (1996)

Hodge L, Salome CM, Hughes JM, Liu-Brennan D, Rimmer J, Allman M, Pang D, Armour C, and Woolcock AJ. “Effect of dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on severity of asthma in children.” Eur Respir J 11: 361-365 (1998)

Holgate ST and Sampson AP. “Antileukotriene therapy.” Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161: S147-S153 (2000)

Kelley DS, Taylor PC, Nelson GJ, Schmidt PC, Ferretti A, Erickson KL, Yu R,
Chandra RK, Mackey BE. “Docosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy men.” Lipids 34: 317-324 (1999)

Kremer JM. “n-3 fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis.”
Am J Clin Nutr 71: 349S-51S. (2000)

Kremer JM, Lawrence DA, Jubiz W, DiGiacomo R, Rynes R, Bartholomew LE,
and Sherman M. “Dietary fish oil and olive oil supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and immunologic effects.” Arthritis Rheum. 33: 810-8220 (1990)

Kremer JM, Lawrence DA, Petrillo GF, Litts LL, Mullaly PM, Rynes RI, Stocker RP, Parhami N, Greenstein NS, and Fuchs BR. “Effects of high-dose fish oil on rheumatoid arthritis after stopping nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Clinical and immune correlates.” Arthritis Rheum 38: 1107-1114 (1995)

Lam BK and Austen F. “Leukotriene C4 synthase. A pivotal enzyme in the biosynthesis of the cysteinyl leukotrienes.” Am J Respir Critical Care Med 161: S16-S19 (1999)

Lee TH, Hoover RL, Williams JD, Sperling RI, Ravalese J, Spur BW, Robinson DR, Corey EJ, Lewis RA, and Austen KF. “Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic acid and docasahexaenoic acid acid on in vitro neurophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neurophil function.” N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 1217-1224 (1985)

Leung KH and Koren HS. “Regulation of human natural killing: protective effect of interferon on NK cells and suppression by PGE2.” J. Immunol. 129: 1742-1747 (1982)

Lo CJ, Chiu KC, Fu M, Lo R, and Helton S. “Fish oil decreases macrophage tumor necrosis factor gene transcription by altering the NF kappa B activity.” J Surg Res 82: 216-221 (1999)

Meydani SN. “Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on cytokine production and their biological action.” Nutrition 12: S8-14 (1996)

Nagakura T, Matsuda S, Shichijyo K, Sugimoto H, and Hata K. “Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty
acids in children with bronchial asthma.” Eur Respir J: 861-865 (2000)

Ozgocmen S, Catal SA, Ardicoglu O, and Kamanli A. “Effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of fibromyalgia syndrome.” Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 38: 362-363 (2000)

Pisetsky DS. “Tumor necrosis factor blockers in rheumatoid arthritis.” N Engl J Med 342: 810-811 (2000)

Prickett JD, Robinson DR, and Steinberg AD. “Dietary enrichment with polyunsaturated acid eicosapentaenoic acid prevents proteinuria and prolongs survival in NZBxNZW F1 mice.” J. Clin. Invest. 68: 556-559 (1981)

Purba M, Kouris-Blazos A, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Lukito W, Rothenber EM, Steen BC, and Wahlqvist ML. “Skin wrinkling: can food make a difference.” J Am Coll Nutr 20: 71-80 (2001)

Reilly DM, Parslew R, Sharpe GR, Powell S, and Green MR. “Inflammatory mediators in normal, sensitive and diseased skin types.” Act Derm Venerol 80: 171-174 (2000)
Robinson DR. “Alleviation of autoimmune disease by dietary lipids containing omega-3 fatty acids.” Rheum Dis Clin North Am 17: 213-222. (1991)

Robinson DR, Xu LL, Tateno S, Guo M, and Colvin RB. “Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids.” J Lipid Res 34: 1435-1444 (1993)

Ross E. “The role of marine fish oils in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.”
Nutr Rev 51: 47-49. (1993)

Ruzicka R. Eicosanoids and the Skin. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. (1990)

Sperling RI. “The effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neutrophils.” Proc Nutr Soc 57: 527-534 (1998)

Tak PP and Firestein GS. “NF-kappaB: a key role inflammatory diseases.” J Clin Invest 107: 7-11 (2001)

Teitelbaum JE andAllan Walker W. “The role of omega 3 fatty acids in intestinal inflammation.” J Nutr Biochem 12: 21-32 (2001)

Walton AJ, Snaith ML, Locniskar M, Cumberland AG, Morrow WJ, and Isenberg DA. “Dietary fish oil and the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.” Ann Rheum Dis 50: 463-466 (1991)

Watkins LR, Nguyen KT, Lee JE, and Maier SF. “Dynamic regulation of proinflammatory cytokines.” Adv Exp Med Biol 461:153-178. (1999)

Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, Russel IJ, and Hebert L. “The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population.” Arthritis Rhum 38: 19-28 (1995)

Zurier RB. “Eicosanoids and inflammation.” in Prostaglandins in Clinical Practice. Watkins WD, Peterson MB, and Flectcher JR (eds). Raven Press. New York, NY pp. 79-96 (1989)

Zurier RB. “Prostaglandins, immune responses and murine lupus.” Arth. Rheum. 25: 804-809 (1982)

Zurier RB. “Lipids and lupus.” InLupus: Molecular and Cellular Pathogenesis. Kammer GM and Tsokos GC eds. Humana Press. pp. 599-611 (1998)

Chapter 15–Women’s Health

Al MD, van Houwelingen AC, and Hornstra G. “Relation between birth order and the maternal and neonatal docosahexaenoic acid status.”
Eur J Clin Nutr 51: 548-553 (1997)

Allen KG and Harris MA. “The role of n-3 fatty acids in gestation and parturition.” Exp Biol Med 226: 498-506 (2001)

Adachi JD and Ioannidis G. “Glucoorticoid-induced osteoporosis.” Drug Development Res 49: 120-134 (2000)

Brush MG, Watson, Horrobin DF, and Manku MS. “Abnormal essential fatty acid levels in plasma of women with premenstrual syndrome.” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 150: 363-366 (1984)

Cerin A, Collins A, Landgren BM, and Eneroth P. “Hormonal and biochemical profiles of premenstrual syndrome: treatment with essential fatty acids.” Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 72: 337-343 (1993)

Cibula D, Cifova R, Fanta M, Poledne R, Zivny J, and Skibova J. “Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and coronary disease in perimenopausal women with a history of the polycystic ovary syndrome.” Human Reproduction 15: 785-789 (2000)

Cushman M, Legault C, Barrett-Connor, Stefanick ML, Kessler C, Judd HL, Sakkinen PA, and Tracy RP. “Effect of postmenopausal hormones on inflammation-sensitive proteins: the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) study.” Circulation 100: 717-722 (1999)

Deutch B, Jorgensen EB, and Hansen JC. “Menstrual discomfort in Danish women reduced by dietary supplements of omega-3 PUFA and B12.” Nutr Res 20: 621-631 (2000)

Eggelmeijer F. “Prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.” Pharm World Scie 20: 193-197 (1998)

Glueck CJ, Wang P, Fontaine R, Tracy T, and Sieve-Smith L. “Metformin-induced resumption of normal menses in 39 or 43 (91%) previously amenorrheic women with the polycystic ovarysyndrome.” Metab 48: 511-519 (1999)

Glucek CJ, Phillips H,Cameron D, Sieve-Smith L, and Wang L. “Continuing metformin throughout pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome appears to safely reduce first-trimester spontaneous abortion: a pilot study.” Fert Steril 75: 46-52 (2001)

Haynes P and Parry BL. “Mood disorders and the reproductive cycle: affect disorders during the menopause and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.” Psycholpharmacology Bull 34: 313-318 (1998)

Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Group. “Randomized trial of estrogen /progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women.” JAMA 280: 605-613 (1998)

Munger RG, Cerhan JR, and C-H Chiu B. “Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women.” Am J Clin Nutr 69: 147-152 (1999)

Kerstetter JE, Svastisalee CM, Casseria DM, Mitnick ME, and Insogna KL. “A threshold for low-protein-diet-induced elevations in parathyroid hormone.” Am J Clin Nutr 72: 168-173 (2000)

Kerstetter JE, Looker AC, and Insogna KL. “Low dietary protein and low bone density.” Calcif Tissue Int 66: 313 (2000)

Kettler DB. “Can manipulation of the ratios of essential fatty acids slow the rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss?” Altern Med Rev 6: 61-77 (2001)

Kiddy DS, Hamilton-Fairley D, Bush A, Short F, Anyaoku V, Reed MJ, and Franks S. “Improvement in endocrine and ovarian function during dietary treatment of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.: Clin Endocrinol 36: 105-111 (1992)

Kiddy DS, Hamilton-Fairley D, Seppala M, Koistinem R, Jones VH, Reed MJ, and Franks S. “Diet-induced changes in sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone in women with normal or polycystic ovaries: correlation with serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor.” Clin Endocrinol 31: 757-763 (1989)

Kramer MS, Demisse K, Yang H, Platt RW, Sauve R, and Liston R. “The contribution of mild and moderate preterm birth to infant mortality.” JAMA 284: 843-849 (2000)

Legro RS. “Insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.” Mol Cel Endocrinol 143: 103-110 (1998)

Lindheim SR, Presser SC, Ditkoff EC, Vijod MA, Stanczyk FZ, and Lobo RA. “A possible bimodal effect of estrogen on insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women and the attenuating effect of added progestin.” Fertil Steril 60: 664-667 (1993)

Makrides M, Neumann M, Simmer K, Pater J, and Gibson RA. “Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy?” Lancet 345: 1463-1468 (1995)

Manelli F and Giustina A. “Glucocorticoid-induced osteroporosis.” TEM 11: 79-85 (2000)

McGregor JA, Allen KG, Harris MA, Reece M, Wheeler M, French JI, and Morrison J. “The omega-3 story: nutritional prevention of preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes.” Obstet Gynecol Surv 56: S1-13. (2001)

Mills JL, DerSimonian R, Morrow JD, Roberts LJ, Clemens JD, Hauth JC, Catalano P, Sibai B, Curet LB, and Levine RJ. “Prostacylin and thromboxane changes predating clinical onset of preeclampsia.” JAMA 282: 356-362 (1999)

Moriguchi T, Greiner S, and Salem N. “Behaviorial deficits associated with dietary induction of decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid concentration.” J Neurochem 75: 2563-2573 (2000)

Munger RG, Cerhan JR, and Chiu B. “Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenpausal women.” Am J Clin Nutr 69: 147-152 (1999)

Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ, Evans WS, and Pasquali R. “Effects of metformin on spontaneous and clomiphene-induced ovulation in the polycystic ovary syndrome.” New Engl J Med 338: 1876-1880 (1998)

Nestler JE and Jakubowicz DJ. “Decreases in ovarian cyctochrone P450c17a activity and serum free testosterone after reduction of insulin secretion in polycystic ovary syndrome.” N Engl J Med 335: 617-623 (1996)

Olsen SF, Hansen HS, Secher NJ, Jensen B, and Sandstrom B. “Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids.” Br J Nutr 73: 397-404 (1995)

Olsen SF, Secher NJ, Tabor A, Weber T, Walker JJ, and Gluud C. “Randomized clinical trials of fish oil supplementation in high risk pregnancies.” Br J Obstet Gynecol 107: 382-395 (2000)

Pulido JME and Salazar MA. “Changes in insulin sensitivity, secretion and glucose effectiveness during menstrual cycle.” Arch Med Res 30″ 19-22 (1999)

Puolakka J, Makarainen L, Viinikka L, and Ylikorkala O. ” Biochemical and clinical effects of treating the premenstrual syndrome with prostaglandin synthesis precursors.” J. Reprod. Med. 30: 149-153 (1985)
Rubinstein M, Marazzi A, and de Fried EP. “Low-dose aspirin treatment improves ovarian responsiveness, uterine and ovarian blood flow velocity, implantation, and pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization: a prospective, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled assay.” Fert Steril 71: 825-829 (1999)

Stark KD, Park EJ, Maines VA, and Holub BJ. “Effect of a fish-oil concentrate on serum lipids in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.” Am J Clin Nutr 72: 389-394 (2000)

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Thatcher SS. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Prespectives Press. Indianapolis, IN (2000)

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Watkins BA, Li Y, and Seifert MF. “Lipids as modulators of bone remodelling.” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 4: 105-110 (2001)

Watkins BA, Li Y, Lippman HE, and Seifert MF. “Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and skeletal health.” Exp Biol Med 226: 485-497 (2001)

Watkins BA, Seifert MF, and Allen KG. “Importance of dietary fat in modulating PGE2 responses and influence of vitamin E on bone morphometry.” World Rev Nutr Diet. 82: 250-259 (1997)

Watkins BA, Lippman HE, Le Bouteiller L, Li Y,and Seifert MF. “Bioactive fatty acids: role in bone biology and bone cell function.” Prog Lipid Res 40: 125-148 (2001)
PART 4. Reaching Your Maximum Potential in the OmegaRx Zone

Chapter 16–Making Your Brain Super-normal

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Kempermann G and Gage FH. “New nerve cells for the adult brain.” Sci Am 280: 48-53 (1999)

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Lim S and Suzuki H. “Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid and phosphatidylcholine on maze behavior and fatty acid composition of plasma and brain lipids in mice.” Int J Vitam Nutr Res 70: 251-259 (2000)

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Schmidt MA. Smart Fats. Frog, Ltd. Berkeley, CA (1997)

Simopoulos AP and Robinson J. The Omega Plan. Harper Collins. New York, NY (1998)

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Stoll AL. The Omega-3 Connection. Simon and Shuster. New York, NY (2001)

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Vance HE, Campenot RB, and Vance DE. “The synthesis and transport of lipids for axonal growth and nerve regeneration.” Biochim Biophys Acta 1486: 84-96 (2000)

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van Houwelingen AC, Ham EC, and Hornstra G. “The female docosahexaenoic acid status related to the number of completed pregnancies.”
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Chapter 17–Emotions: The Mind-Body- Diet Connection

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Maes M, Song C, Lin A, De Jongh R, Van Gastel A, Kenis G, Bosmans E, De
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Maes M, Christophe A, Bosmans E, Lin A, and Neels H. “In humans, serumpolyunsaturated fatty acid levels predict the response of proinflammatory cytokines to psychologic stress.” Bio Psychiarty 47: 910-920 (2000)

MacLean CR, Walton KG, Wenneberg SR, Levitsky DK, Mandarino JP, Waziri R, Hillis SL, and Schneider RH. “Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice.”
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Chapter 18–How to Make a Better Athlete

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Appendix

Technical Support
Sears Diet Meals and Snacks

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Smith DL, Willis AL, Nguyen N, Conner D, Zahedi S, and Fulks J. “Eskimo plasma constituents, dihomo gamma linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit the release of atherogenic mitogens.” Lipids 24: 70-75 (1989)

Sprecher H, Chen Q, and Yin F-Q. “Regulation of the biosynthesis of 22:5 n-6 and 22:6 n-3: a complex intracellular process.” Lipids 34: S1453-S156 (1999)

Sprecher H. “Metabolism of highly unsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.”
Biochim Biophys Acta 1486: 219-231 (2000)

Stone KJ, Willis AL, Hurt M, Kirtland SJ, Kernoff PBA, and McNichol GF. “The metabolism of dihomo gamma linolenic acid in man.” Lipids 14: 174-180 (1979)

Sugimoto Y, Narumiya S, and Ichikawa A. “Distribution and function of prostanoid receptors: studies from knockout mice.” Prog Lipid Res 39: 389-314 (2000)

Tang L, Loutzenhiser K, and Loutzenhiser R. “Biphasic actions of prostaglandin E2on the renal afferent arteriole. Role of EP3 and EP4 receptors.” Cir Res 86: 663-670 (2000)

Ulmann L, Blond JP, Maniongur C, Poisson JP, Durand G, Bezard J, and Pascal G. “Effects of age and dietary essential fatty acids on desaturase activities and on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal phospholipids of adult rats.” Lipids 26: 127-133 (1991)

Vane JR. “Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action of aspirinlike drugs.” Nature (London) New Biol. 231: 232-235 (1971)

Vane JR and O’Grady J eds. Therapeutic Applications of Prostaglandins. Edward Arnold, London. (1993)

 

Wallace JL. “The arachidonic acid pathway.” in Drug Development: Molecular Targets for GI Diseases. Gaginella TS and Gugliett A eds. Humana Press. Totowa NJ. pp. 1-20 (1998)

Watkins WD, Petersen MB, and Fletcher JR (eds). Prostaglandins in Clinical Practice. Raven Press. New York, NY (1989)

Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Rosner BA, Sampson LA, and Hennekens CH “Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women.” Lancet 341: 581-585 (1993)

Williams LL, Doody DM, and Horrocks LA. “Serum fatty acid proportions are altered during the year following acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.” Lipids 23: 981-988 (1988)

Willis AL. Handbook of Eicosanoids, Prostglandins and Related Lipids . CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL (1987)

Yam D, Eliraz A, Eliraz B, and Elliot M. “Diet and disease-the Israeli paradox: possible dangers of a high omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet.” Isr J Med Sci 32: 1134-1143 (1996)

Yamamoto N, Fukushima M, Tsurumi T, Maeno K, and Nishiyama Y. “Mechanism of inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by prostaglandin A1 and prostaglandin J2.” Biochem Biophys Res Comm 146: 1425-1431 (1987)

Yokomizo T, Izumi T, and Shimizu T. “Leukotriene B4: metabolism and signal transduction.” Arch Biochem Biophys 385: 231-241 (2001)

The Soy Zone Bibliography

The following references are from “The Anti-Inflammation Zone” by Dr. Barry Sears, which was published in 2000.

Chapter 1-The Quest for a Longer and Better Life

American Heart Association. 1997 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update. American Heart Association. Houston, TX. (1996)

Chatenoud L, La Vecchia C, Francheschi S, Tavani A, Jacobs DR, Parpinel MT, Soler M, and Negri E. “Refined-cereal intake and risk of selected cancers in Italy.” Am J Clin Nutr 70: 1107-1110 (1999)

Depres J-P, Lamarch B. Mauriege P, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, Moorjani S, and Lupien PJ. “Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease.” N Engl J Med 334: 952-957 (1996)

Franceschi S, Favero A, Decarli D, Negri E, La Vecchia C, Ferranroni M, Russo A, Salvini S, Amadori D, Conti E, Montella M, and Giacosa A. “Intake of macronutrients and risk of breast cancer.” Lancet 347: 1351-1356 (1996)

Giovannucci E. “Insulin and colon cancer.” Cancer Causes and Control 6: 164-179 (1997)

McKeown-Eyssen G. “Epidemiology of colorectal cancer revisted: are serum triglycerides and/or plasma glucose associated with risk?” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 3: 687-695 (1994)

Messina V and Messina M. The Vegetarian Way. Crown Trade Paperbacks. New York, NY (1996)

Mizushima S and Yamori Y. “Nutritional improvement, cardiovascular disease, and longevity in Japan.” Nutr Health 8: 97-105 (1992)

Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, and JP Koplan. “The spread of the obesity epdemic in the United States, 1991-1998.” JAMA 282: 1519-1522 (1999)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Stoll BA. “Essential fatty acids, insulin resistance, and breast cancer risk.” Nutrition and Cancer 31: 72-77 (1998)

Walford RL and Walford L. The Anti-Aging Plan. Four Walls Eight Windows. New York, NY. (1994)

Weindruch R and Walford RL. The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. Charles C. Thomas. Springfield, IL (1988)

Weindruch R. “Caloric restriction and aging.” Sci Am 274: 46-52 (1996)

Chapter 2-The Longest-Lived People on Earth

Akisaka M Asato L, Chan YC, Suzuki M, Uezata T, and Yamamoto S. “Energy and nutrient intake of Okinawan centenarians.” J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 42: 241-248 (1996)

Akisaka M, Suzuki M, and Inoko H. “Molecular genetic studies on DNA polymorphism of the HLA class II genes associated with human longevity.” Tissue Antigens 50: 489-493 (1997)

Ginsburg B and Milken M. The Taste for Living Cookbook. Cap CURE. Santa Monica, CA (1998)

Kagawa Y. “Impact of Westernization on the nutrition of Japanese: changes in physique, cancer, longevity, and centenarians.” Prev Med 7: 205-217 (1978)

Kagawa Y, Nishizawa M, Suzuki M, Miyatake T, Hamamoto T, Goto K, Montaonga E, Izumikawa H, Hirata H, and Eibhara A. “Eicospolyenoic acids of serum lipids of Japanese islanders with low incidence of cardiovascular diseases.” J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 28: 441-453 (1982)

Mimura G, Murakami K, and Gushiken M. “Nutritional factors for longevity in Okinawa—present and future.” Nutr Health 8: 159-163 (1992)

Mizushima S and Yamori Y. “Nutritional improvement, cardiovascular disease, and longevity in Japan.” Nutr Health 8: 97-105 (1992)

Okamoto K and Sasaki R. “Geographical epidemiologic studies on factors associated with centenarians in Japan.” Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 32: 485-490 (1995)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Shibata H, Hagai H, Haga H, Yasumura S, Suzki T, and Suyama Y. “Nutrition for the Japanese elderly.” Nutr Health 8: 165-175 (1992)

Takata H, Suzuki M, Ishii T, Sekiguchi S, and Iri H. “Influence of major histocompatibility complex region genes on human longevity among Okinawan-Japanese centerarians and nonagenarians.” Lancet ii: 824-826 (1987)

Walford RL. The 120-Years Diet. Simon and Shuster. New York, NY (1986)

Weindruch R and Walford RL. The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. Charles C. Thomas. Springfield, IL (1988)

Chapter 3-Entering the Soy Zone: Balance and Moderation

Kris-Etherton PM, Pearson TA, Wan Y, Hargrove RL, Moriaty K, Fishell V, and Etherton TD. “High-monounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglcerol concentrations.” Am J Clin Nutr 70: 1009-1015 (1999)

Holmes MD, Stampfer MJ, Colditz, Rosner B, Hunter DJ, and Willett WC. “Dietary factors and the survival of women with breast cancer.” Cancer 86: 751-753 (1999)

Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, and Willett WC. “Dietary Protein and the Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in Women.” Am J Clin Nutr 70: 221-227 (1999)

Lemon P. “Do athletes need more dietary protein and amino acids?” Int J Sports Nutr 5: S39-61 (1995)

Munger RG, Cerhan JR, and C-H Chiu B. “Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women.” Am J Clin Nutr 69: 147-152 (1999)

Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Golditz GA, and Willett WC. “Vitamin E consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in men.” N Engl J Med 328: 1450-1456 (1993)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. Mastering the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Sears B. Zone Food Blocks. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Skov AR, Toubro S, Ronn B, Holm L, and Astrup A. “Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity.” International Journal of Obesity 23: 528-536 (1999)

Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, Coditz GA, Rosner B, and Willett WC. “Vitamin E consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women.” N Engl J Med 328: 1444-1449 (1993)

Swisklocki AM, Chen Y-D, Golay MA, Cheng M-D, and Reaven GM. “Insulin suppression of plasma free fatty acid concentration in normal individuals or patients with type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes.” Diabetologia 30: 622-626 (1987)

Unger RH and Lefebvre PJ. “Glucagon: Molecular Physiology, Clinical and Therapeutic Implications. Pergamon Press. Oxford, England (1972)

Unger RH. “Glucagon and the insulin:glucagon ratio in diabetes and other catabolic illnesses.” Diabetes 20: 834-838 (1971)

Young VR, Bier DM, and Pellett PL. “A theoretical basis for increasing current estimates of the amino acid requirements in adult man, with experimental support.” Am J Clin Nutr 50: 80-92 (1989)

Young VR. “Protein and amino acid requirements in humans.” Scand J Nutr 36: 47-56 (1992)

Chapter 4-Practical Hints for Preparing Your Kitchen

Greenberg P. The Whole Soy Cookbook. Three Rivers Press. New York, NY (1998)

Sass L. Lorna Sass’ Complete Vegetarian Kitchen. Hearst Books. New York, NY. (1992)

Sass L. The New Soy Cookbook. Chronicle Books. San Francisco, CA (1998)

Sass L. Great Vegetarian Cooking Under Pressure.

Sears B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Shurtleff W and Aoyagi A. The Book of Tofu. Ballatine Publishing. New York, NY 1975)

Chapter 5-Getting Ready to Cook in Your Vegetarian Zone Kitchen

Sass L. Lorna Sass’ Complete Vegetarian Kitchen. Hearst Books. New York, NY. (1992)

Sears B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Chapter 7-Insulin: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Hollenbeck C and Reaven GM. “Variation of insulin stimulated glucose uptake in healthy individuals with normal glucose tolerance.” J Clin Endocrinol and Metabl 64: 1169-1173 (1987)

Unger RH and Lefebvre PJ. “Glucagon: Molecular Physiology, Clinical and Therapeutic Implications. Pergamon Press. Oxford, England (1972)

Unger RH. “Glucagon and the insulin:glucagon ratio in diabetes and other catabolic illnesses.” Diabetes 20: 834-838 (1971)

Chapter 8-Soy Science

Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, and Cook-Newell ME. “Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids.” N Engl J Med 333: 276-82 (1995)

Lakshmanan MR, Neopkroeff CM, Ness GC, Dugan RE, and Porter JW. “Stimulation by insulin of the rat liver beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol synthesizing activities.” Biochem Biophys Res Comm 50: 704-710 (1973)

Nepokroeff CM, Lakshmanan MR, Ness GC, Dugan RE, and Porter JW. “Regulation of the dirurnal rhythm of rat liver beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity by insulin, glucagon, cyclic AMP and hydrocortisone.” Arch Biochem Biophys 160: 387-396 (1974)

Ness GC, Zhao Z, and Wiggins L. “Insulin and glucagon modulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity by affecting immunoreactive protein levels.” J Biol Chem 269: 29168-29173 (1994)

Sanchez A, Hubbard RW, and Hilton GF. “Hypocholesterolemic amino acids and the insulin glucagon ratio.” Dietary Proteins, Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis. Sugano M and Beynen AC eds. Krager, Basel. Vol. 16 pp 126-138 (1990)

Sanchez A, Hubbard RW, and Hilton GF. “Dietary protein control of serum cholesterol by insulin and glucagon.” Dietary Proteins, Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis. Sugano M and Beynen AC eds. Krager, Basel. Vol. 16 pp 139-147 (1990)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Unger RH and Lefebvre PJ. “Glucagon: Molecular Physiology, Clinical and Therapeutic Implications. Pergamon Press. Oxford, England (1972)

Unger RH. “Glucagon and the insulin:glucagon ratio in diabetes and other catabolic illnesses.” Diabetes 20: 834-838 (1971)

Chapter 9-Excess Insulin and Heart Disease

Acherio AC, Hennekens CH, and Willett WC. “Trans-fatty acid intake and risk of myocardial infaction.” Circulation 89: 94-101 (1994)

Acherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Spelelman D, Stampfer M, and Willett WC. “Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men.” Brit Med J 313: 84-90 (1996)

Austin MA, Breslow JL, Hennekens CH, Burning JE, Willett WC, and Krauss RM. “Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and risk of myocardinal infarction. “ JAMA 260: 1917-1920 (1988)

De Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin J-L, Monaud I, Delaye J, and Mamelle N. “Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon diet heart study.” Circulation 99: 779-785 (1999)

Ginsburg GS, Sarran C, and Pasternak RC. “Frequency of low serum high-density cholesterol levels in hospitalized patients with ‘desireable’ total cholesterol levels.” Am J Cardiol 15: 187-192 (1991)

Depres J-P, Lamarch B. Mauriege P, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, Moorjani S, and Lupien PJ. “Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease.” N Engl J Med 334: 952-957 (1996)

Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH, O’Donnell CJ, Breslow JL, and Burning JE. “Fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins and risk of myocardial infarction.” Circulation 96: 2520-2525 (1997)

Giovannucci E. “Insulin and colon cancer.” Cancer Causes and Control 6: 164-179 (1997)

Golay KL, Allaz AF, Morel Y, de Tonnac N, Tankova S, and Reaven G. “Similar weight loss with low-or high-carbohydrate diets.” Am J Clin Nutr 63: 174-178 (1996)

Gould KL, Ornish D, Scherwitz L, Brown S, Eden RP, Hess MJ, Mullani N, Bolomey L, Dodds F, Armstrong WT, Merritt T, Ports T, Sparler S, and Billings J. “Changes in myocardial perfusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography after long-term, intense risk factor modification.” JAMA 274: 894-901 (1995)

Gould KL. “Very low-fat diets for coronary heart disease: perhaps, but which one?” JAMA 275: 1402-1403 (1996)

Harris WS. “n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies.” Am J Clin Nutr 65: 1645S-1654S (1997)

Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, and Willett WC. “Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women.” Am J Clin Nutr 70: 221-227 (1999)

Katan MB, Grundy SM, and Willett WC. “Beyond low-fat diets.” N Engl J Med 337: 563-566 (1997)

Krumholtz HM, Seeman TE, Merrill SS, Mendes de Leon CF, Vaccarino V, Silverman DI, Tsukahara R, Ostfield AM, and Berkman LF. “Lack of association between cholesterol and coronary heart disease mortalit and morbidity and all-cause mortality in persons older than 70 years.” JAMA 272: 1335-1340 (1994)

Lamarch B, Tchernof A, Mauriege P, Cantin B, Gagenais GR, Lupien PJ, and Despres J-P. “Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density particle size as risk factors for ischemic heart disease.” JAMA 279: 1955-1961 (1998)

Leaf A. “Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease: the Lyon diet heart study.” Circulation 99: 733-735 (1999)

Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Gould KL, Merritt TA, Sparler S, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, Kirkeeide RL, Hogeboom C, and Brand RJ. “Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease.” JAMA 280: 2001-2007 (1998)

Rosamond WD, Chambless LE, Folsom AR, Cooper LS, Conwill DE, Clegg L, Wang CH, and Heiss G. “Trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction and in mortality due to coronary heart disease, 1987 to 1994.” N Engl J Med 339861-867 (1998)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Chapter 10-Your Longevity Report Card

Scholsberg S and Neporent L. Fitness for Dummies. IDG Books. Foster City, CA (1996)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Chapter 11- Brain Food

Adams PB, Lawson S, Sanigorski A, and Sinclair AJ. “Arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio in blood correlates positivelly with clinical symptoms of depression.” Lipids 31: S157-161 (1996)

Agren JJ, Tormala ML, Nenonem MJ, and Haainea OO. “Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte, platelet and serum lipids in strict vegetarians.” Lipids 30: 365-369 (1995)

Carlson S and Werkman S. “A randomized trial of visual attention of preterm infants fed hecosahexanenoic acid until two months.” Lipids 31: 85-90 (1996)

Connor WE, Neuringer M, and Reisbick S. “Essential fatty acids: the importance of n-3 fatty acids in the retina and brain.” Nutr Rev 50: 21-29 (1992)

Conquer JA and Holub BJ. “Supplementation with an algae source of docosahexaenoic acid increases (n-3) fatty acid status and alters selected risk factors for heart disease in vegetarian subjects.” J Nutr 126: 3032-3039 (1996)

Crawford MA, Bloom M, Broadhurst CL, Schmidt WF, Cunnane SC, Galli C, Gehbremeskel K, Linseisen F, Lloyd-Smith J, and Parkington J. “Evidence for the unique function of docosahexaenoic acid during the evolution of the modern hominid brain.” Lipids 34: S39-S47 (1999)

Hamazaki TS, Sawazaki S, Itomura M, Asaoka E, Nagao Y, Nishimura N, Yazawa K, Kawamori T, and Kobayashi M. “The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults.” J Clin Investigation 97: 1129-1133 (1996)

Harris WS. “n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies.” Am J Clin Nutr 65: 1645S-1654S (1997)

Hibbeln JR and Salem N. “Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: when cholesterol does not satisfy.” Am J Clin Nutr 62: 1-9 (1995)

Kyle DJ and Arterburn LM. “Single cell oil sources of docosahexaenoic acid: clinical studies.” World Rev Nutr Diet 83:116-31 (1998)

Lanting CI, Fidler V, Huisman M, Touwen BCL, and Boersma ER. “Neurological differences between 9-year old children fed breast-milk or formula-milk as babies.” Lancet 344: 1319-1322 (1994)

Makrides M, Simmer K , Goggin M, and Gibson RA. “Erthyocyte docosahexaenoic acid correlates with the visual response of healthy, term infants.” Pediatric Res 33:425-427 (1992)

Makrides M, Neumann M, Simmer K, Pater J, and Gibson RA. “Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy?” Lancet 345: 1463-1468 (1995)

Reddy S, Sanders TB, and Obeid O. “The influence of maternal vegetarian diet on essential fatty acid status of the newborn.” Eur J Clin Nutr 48: 358-368 (1994)

Sanders TAB and Reddy S. “The influence of a vegetarian diet on the fatty acid composition of milk and the essential fatty acid status of the infant.” J Pediatrics 120: S71-77 (1992)

Schmidt MA. Smart Fats. Frog Ltd. Berkeley, CA (1997)

Singh A and Ward OP. “Microbial production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6).” Adv Appl Microbiol 45: 271-312 (1997)

Soderberg M, Edlund C, Kristensson K, and Dallner G. “Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids in aging and in Alzehimer’s disease.” Lipids 26: 421-425 (1996)

Sprecher H, Chen Q., and Yin F-Q. “Regulation of the biosynthesis of 22:5n-6 and 22:n-3: a complex intracellular process.” Lipids 34: S153-S156 (1999)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, Abate ML, Watkins BA, Lipp SR, and Burgress JR. “Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Amer J Clin Nutr 62: 761-768 (1995)

Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, and Burgress JR. “Omega-3 fatty acids in boy with behavior, learning, and health problems.” Physiology and Behavior 59: 915-920 (1996)

Stoll AL, Severus E, Freeman MP, Rueter S, Zhoyan HA, Diamond E, Cress KK, and Marangell LB. “Omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder.” Arch Gen Psychiatry 56: 407-412 (1999)

Uauy R, Peiremo P, Hoffman D, Mena P, Birch D, and Birch E. “Role of essential fatty acids in the function of the developing nervous system.” Lipids 31: S167-176 (1996)

Willatts P, Forsyth JS, DiModugno MK, Varma S, and Colvin M. “Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age.” Lancet 352: 688-691 (1998)

Chapter 12-Fine-tuning the Soy Zone Diet

Lemon P. “Do athletes need more dietary protein and amino acids?” Int J Sports Nutr 5: S39-61 (1995)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. Mastering the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears B. Zone Food Blocks. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Chapter 13-Advanced Soy Science: Isoflavones

Adlecreutz H and Mazur W. “Phyto-oestrogens and western diseases.” Ann Med 29: 95-120 (1997)

Albertazzi P, Pansini F, Bonaccorsi G, Zamitti L, Forini E, and de Aloysio D. “The effect of dietary soy supplementation on hot flashes.” Obstet Gynecol 91: 6-11 (1998)

Altonn H. “Too much tofu induces brain aging.” Honolulu Star Bulletin. Nov 19 (1999)

Anderson JJ and Garner SC. “Phytoestrogens and bone.” Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab 12: 543-557 (1998)

Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, and Cook-Newell ME. “Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids.” N Engl J Med 333: 276-82 (1995)

Anthony MS, Clarkson TB, and Williams JK. “Effects of soy isoflavones on atherosclerosis: potential mechanisms.” Am J Clin Nutr 68: 1390S-1393S (1998)

Barnes S. “Evolution of the health benefits of soy isoflavones.” Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 217: 386-392 (1998)

Cassidy A and Griffin B. “Phyto-oestrogens: a potential role in the prevention of CHD?” Proceedings of Nutr Soc 58: 193-199 (1999)

Clarkson TB and Anthony MS. “Phytoestrogens and coronary heart disease.” Balliere’s Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 12: 589604 (1998)

Colborn T, Dumanoski D, and Myers JP. Our Stolen Future. Dutton. New York, NY (1996)

Coronary Drug Project Research Group. “The coronary drug project: findinds leading to discontinuation of the 2.5mg/day estrogen group.” JAMA 214: 1303-1313 (1973)

Duncan AM, Merz BE, Xu X, Nagel TC, Phipps WR, and Kurzer MS. “Soy isoflavones exert modest hormonal effects in premenopausal women.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84: 192-197 (1999)

Duncan AM, Underhill KEW, Xu X, Lavalleur J, Phipps WR, and Kurzer MS. “Modest hormonal effects of soy isoflavones in postmenopausal women.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84: 3479-3484 (1999)

Divi RL, Chang HC, and Doerge DR. “Anti-thyroid isoflavones from soybean: isolation, characterization, and mechanisms of action.” Biochem Pharmacol 15: 1087-1096 (1997)

Forsythe WA. “Soy protein, thyroid regulation and cholesterol metabolism.” J Nutr 125: 619S-623S (1995)

Gambacciani M, Cappagli B, Piaggesi L, Ciaponi M, and Genazzani AR. “Ipriflavone prevents the loss of bone mass in pharmcological menopause induce by GnRH-agonists.” Calcif Tissue Int 611: s15-s18 (1997)

Genmari C, Agnusdei D, Crepaldi G, Issaia G, Mazzvoli G, Ortolaandi S, Bufalino L, and Passeri M. “Effect of ipriflavone-a synthetic derivative of natural isoflavones-on bone mass loss in the early years after menopause.” Menopause 5: 9-15 (1998)

Hargreavaes DF, Potten CS, Harding C, Shaw LE, Morton MS, Roberts SA, Howell A, and Bundred NJ. “Two-week dietary soy supplementation has a estrogenic effect on normal premenopausal breast.” J Clin Endocrinol and Metab 84: 4017-4024 (1999)

Head KA. “Ipriflavone: an important bone-building isoflavone.” Altern Med Rev 4: 10-22 (1999)

Hodgson JU, Puddely IB, and Beillin LJ. “Supplementation with isoflavoid phytoesterogens does not alter serum lipid concentrations: a randomized trial in humans.” J Nutr 128: 728-732 (1998)

Jabbar MA, Larrea J, and Shaw RA. “Abnormal thyroid function tests in infants with congenital hypothyroidism: the influence of soy-based formula.” J Am Coll Nutr 16: 280-282 (1997)

Kapiotis S, Hermann M, Held I, Seelos C, Ehringer H, and Gmeiner BM. “Genistein, the dietary-derived angiogenesis inhibitor, prevents LDL oxidation and protects endothelial cells from damage by atherogenic LDL.” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17: 2868-2874 (1997)

Kim H, Peterson TB, and Barnes S. “Mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavone genistein: emerging role for its effect via transforming growth factor beta signaling pathways.” Am J Clin Nutr 68: 1418S-1425S (1998)

Knight DC and Eden JA. “Phytoestrogens-a short review.” Maturitas22: 167-175 (1995)

Krimsky S. Hormonal Chaos. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD. (2000)

Lichtenstein AH. “Soy protein, isoflavones and cardiovascular disease risk.” J Nutr 128: 1589-1592 (1998)

Morita T, Oh-hashi A, Takei K, Ikai M, Kasaoka S, and Kiriyama S. “Cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean, potato and rice proteins depend on their low methionine contents in rats fed a cholesterol-free purified diet.” J Nutr 127: 470-7 (1997)

Moyad MA. “Soy, disease prevention, and prostate cancer.” Semin Urol Oncol 17: 97-102 (1999)

Murkies AL, Lombard C, Strauss BJ, Wilcox G, Burger HG, and Morton MS. “Dietary flour supplementation decreases post-menopausal hot flashes: effect of soy and wheat.” Maturitas 21: 189-195 (1995)

Nestel PJ, Yamashita T, Sasahara T, Pomeroy S, Dart A, Komesaroff P, Owen A, and Abbey M. “Soy isoflavone improves systemic arterial compliance but not plasma lipids in menopausal and perimenopausal women.” Arteriscolerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 17: 3392-3398 (1997)

Petrakis NL, Barnes S, King EB, Lowenstein J, Wiencke J, Lee MN, Miike R, Kirk M, and Coward L. “Stimulatory influence of soy protein isolate on breat secretion in pre- and postmenopausal women.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5: 785-794 (1996)

Peterson G and Barnes S. “Genistein inhibits both estrogen and growth factor-stimulated proliferation of human breast cancer cells.” Cell Growth Differ 7: 1345-1351 (1996)

Potter SM, Pertile J, and Berber-Jimenez MD. “Soy protein concentrate and isolated soy protein similarly lower bloos serum cholesterol but differently affect thyroid hormones.” J Nutr 126: 2007-2011 (1996)

Potter SM. “Soy protein and cardiovascular disease: the impact of bioactive components in soy.” Nutrition Reviews 56: 231- 235 (1998)

Potter SM, Baum JA, and Teng H, Stillman RJ, and Erdman JW. “Soy protein and isoflavones exert modest hormonal effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women.” Am J Clin Nutr 68: 1375S-1379S (1998)

Sanchez A, Hubbard RW, and Hilton GF. “Hypocholesterolemic amino acids and the insulin glucagon ratio.” Dietary Proteins, Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis. Sugano M and Beynen AC eds. Krager, Basel. Vol. 16 pp 126-138 (1990)

Sanchez A, Hubbard RW, and Hilton GF. “Dietary protein control of serum cholesterol by insulin and glucagon.” Dietary Proteins, Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis. Sugano M and Beynen AC eds. Krager, Basel. Vol. 16 pp 139-147 (1990)

Scheiber MD. “Isoflavones and postmenopausal bone health: a viable alternative to estrogen therapy?” Menopause 6: 233-242 (1998)

Setchell KD, Zimmer-Nechemias L, Cai J, and Heubi JE. “Exposure of infants to phyto-oestrogens from soy-based infant formula.” Lancet 350: 23-27 (1997)

Setchell KD and Cassidy A. “Dietary isoflavones: biological effects and relevance to human health.” J Nutr 129: 758S-767S (1999)

Tham DM, Gardner CD, and Haskell WL. “Potential health benefits of dietary phytoestrogens: a review of the clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic evidence.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 2223-2235 (1998)

Washburn S, Burke GL, Morgan T, and Anthony M. “Effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women.” Menopause 6: 7-13 (1999)

Whitten PL, Lewis C, Russell E, and Naftolin F. “Potential adverse effects of phytoestrogens.” J Nutr 125: 771S-776S (1995)

Williams JK and Clarkson TB. “Dietary soy isoflavones inhibit in-vivo constrictor responses of coronary arteries to collagen-induced platelet activation.” Biochem Pharmacol 54: 759-764 (1998)

Zoppi G and Guandalini S. “The story of soy formula feeding in infants: a road paved with good intentions.” J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 28: 541-543 (1999)

Chapter 14-Health Benefits of the Soy Zone Diet Compared to Traditional Grain-Based Vegetarian Diets

Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. “The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on incidences of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers.” N Engl J Med 330: 1029-1035 (1994)

De Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin J-L, Monaud I, Delaye J, and Mamelle N. “Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon diet heart study.” Circulation 99: 779-785 (1999)

Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, and Willett WC. “Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women.” N Engl J Med 340: 169-176 (1999)

Holmes MD, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Hankinson SE, Speizer FE, Rosner B, and Willett WC. “Association of dietary intake of fat and fatty acids with risk of breast cancer.” JAMA 281: 914-920 (1999)

Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH, O’Donnell CJ, Breslow JL, and Burning JE. “Fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins and risk of myocardial infarction.” Circulation 96: 2520-2525 (1997)

Giovannucci EL and Willett WC. “Dietary factors and the risk of colon cancer.” Ann Med 26: 443-452 (1994)

Katan MB, Grundy SM, and Willett WC. “Beyond low-fat diets.” N Engl J Med 337: 563-566 (1997)

Key TJA, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, and Burr ML. “Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17 year follow up. Brit Med J 313: 775-779 (1996)

Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, Misk PJ, Wu Y, and Bostick RM. “Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in post menopausal women.” N Engl J Med 334: 1156-1162 (1996)

Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, and Willett WC. “Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women.” Am J Clin Nutr 70: 221-227 (1999)

Lamarch B, Tchernof A, Mauriege P, Cantin B, Gagenais GR, Lupien PJ, and Despres J-P. “Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density particle size as risk factors for ischemic heart disease.” JAMA 279: 1955-1961 (1998)

Leaf A. “Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease: the Lyon diet heart study.” Circulation 99: 733-735 (1999)

Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Gould KL, Merritt TA, Sparler S, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, Kirkeeide RL, Hogeboom C, and Brand RJ. “Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease.” JAMA 280: 2001-2007 (1998)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Weindruch R and Walford RL. The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. Charles C. Thomas. Springfield, IL (1989)

Weindruch R. “Caloric restriction and aging.” Sci Am 274: 46-52 (1996)

Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Spiegelman D, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, and Speizer FE. “Dietary fat and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer.” JAMA 268 2037-2044 (1992)

Chapter 15-World Health Implications for the Soy Zone Diet

Eaton SB, Shostalle M, and Konner M. The Paleolithic Prescription. Harper and Row. New York, NY (1998)

Eaton SB and Konner MJ. “Paleolithic nutrition.” N Engl J Med 312: 283-289 (1985)

Rifkin J. Beyond Beef. Dutton. New York, NY (1993)

Moore FM. Diet for a Small Planet. Ballantine. New York, NY (1971)

Robbins J. Diet for New America. Stillpoint. Walpole, NH (1987)

Appendix B-Frequently Asked Questions

Abelow BJ, Holford TR, and Inosogna KL “Cross-cultural association between dietary animal protein and hip fracture: a hypothesis.” Calcif Tissue Inst 50: 14-18 (1992)

Cassidy CM. “Nutrition and health in agriculturists and hunter-gatherers: a case study of two prehistoric populations.” In Nutritional anthropology: contemporary approaches to diet and culture. Redgrave, Bedford Hills, NY pp. 117-146 (1980)

Cordain L, Miller J, and Mann N. “Scant evidence of periodic starvation among hunter-gatherers.” Diabetologia 42: 383-384 (1999)

Cohen MN and Armelagos GJ. “Paleopathology at the orgins of argriculture.” In Paleopathology at the Orgins of Agriculture. Cohen NM and Armelagos GJ eds. Academic Press, New York, NY pp.585-601 (1984)

Eaton SB, Shostalle M, and Konner M. The Paleolithic Prescription. Harper and Row. New York, NY (1998)

Eaton SB and Konner MJ. “Paleolithic nutrition.” N Engl J Med 312: 283-289 (1985)

Folsom AR, Ma J, McGovern PG, and Eckfeldt H. “Relation between plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and hyperinsulinemia.” Metabolism, 45: 223-228 (1996)

Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, and Willett WC. “Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women.” N Engl J Med 340: 169-176 (1999)

Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Chute CC, and Willett WC. “A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer.”

J Natl Cancer Inst 851571-1579 1993)

Giovannucci E. “Insulin and colon cancer.” Cancer Causes and Control 6: 164-179 (1997)

Holmes MD, Stampfer MJ, Colditz, Rosner B, Hunter DJ, and Willett WC. “Dietary factors and the survival of women with breast cancer.” Cancer 86: 751-753 (1999)

Jain SK, Kannan K, and Lim G. “Ketosis (acetoacetate) can generate oxygen radicals and cause increased lipid peroxidation and growth inhibition in human endothelial cells.” Free Radical Biol and Med 25: 1083-1088 (1998)

Jain SK, McVie R, Jackson, R, Levine SN, and Lim G. “Effect of hyperketonemia on plasma lipid peroxidation levels in diabetic patients.” Diabetes Care 22: 1171-1175 (1999)

Jain SK and McVie R. “Hyperketonemia can increase lipid peroxidation and lower glutathione levels in human erthrocytes in vitro and in Type 1 diabetic patients.” Diabetes 48: 1850-1855 (1999)

Kern PA, Ong JM, Soffan B, and Carty J. “The effects of weight loss on the activity and expression of adipose-tissue lipoprotein lipase in very obese individuals.” N Engl J Med 322: 1053-1059 (1990)

Key TJA, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, and Burr ML. “Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17 year follow up. Brit Med J 313: 775-779 (1996)

Kritchevsky D. “Protein requirements of the elderly.” In Nutrition of the Elderly. Munro H and Schlierf eds. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Vol. 20. Raven Press. New York, NY (1992)

McKeown-Eyssen G. “Epidemiology of colorectal cancer revisted: are serum triglycerides and/or plasma glucose associated with risk?” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 3: 687-695 (1994)

Messina V and Messina M. The Vegetarian Way. Crown Trade Paperbacks. New York, NY (1996)

Moore FM. Diet for a Small Planet. Ballantine. New York, NY (1971)

Munger RG, Cerhan JR, and C-H Chiu B. “Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women.” Am J Clin Nutr 69: 147-152 (1999)

Schuette SA, Zemel MB, and Linkswiler HM. “Studies on the mechanisms of protein-induced hypercalciuria in older men and women.” J Nutr 110: 305-315 (1980)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Chisholm DJ, Pascoe WS, Khouri S, and Kraegen EW.

“Influence of dietary fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats. Relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega-3 fatty acids in muscle phospholipid.” Diabetes 40: 280-289 (1991)

Storlien LH, Pan DA, Kriketos AD, O’Connor J, Caterson ID, Cooney GJ, Jenkins AB, and Baur LA. “Skeletal muscle membrane lipids and insulin resistance.” Lipids 31: S261-265 (1996)

Weindruch R and Walford RL. The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. Charles C. Thomas. Springfield, IL (1988)

Weindruch R. “Caloric restriction and aging.” Sci Am 274: 46-52 (1996)

Young VR, Bier DM, and Pellett PL. “A theoretical basis for increasing current estimates of the amino acid requirements in adult man, with experimental support.” Am J Clin Nutr 50: 80-92 (1989)

Young VR. “Protein and amino acid requirements in humans.” Scand J Nutr 36: 47-56 (1992)

Appendix C-Zone Validation Studies

Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, and Roberts SB. High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity.” Pediatrics 103: E26 (1999)

Markovic TP; Jenkins AB; Campbell LV; Furler SM; Kraegen EW; Chisholm DJ. “The determinants of glycemic responses to diet restriction and weight loss in obesity and NIDDM.” Diabetes Care 21:687-94 (1998)

Sears B, Kahl P, and Rapier G. “A nutrition intervention program to improve glycemia, lipid profiles, and hyperinsulinemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.” Diabetes Care 21: A21 (1998)

Appendix D-Understanding Carbohydrates

Foster-Powell K and Miller JB. “International tables of glycemic index.” Am J Clin Nutr 62: 871S-893S (1995)

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin JM, Bowling AC, Newman HC, Jenkins AL, and Goff DV. “Glycemic index of foods: physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.” Am J Clin Nutr 34: 362-366 (1981)

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, and Josse RG. “The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications.” Am J Clin Nutr 54: 846-854 (1991)

The Zone Bibliography

The following references are from “The Zone,” by Dr. Barry Sears, which was published in 1995.

Introduction
Adams CWM, Abdulla YH, Bayliss OB, and Morgan RS. “Modfication of aortic atheroma and fatty liver in cholesterol fee rabbits by intravenous injection of saturated and polyunsaturated lecithins.” J. Path. Bact. 94: 77-87 (1967)

Altman RFA, de Mendonca JM, Schaeffer GMV, Ramos de Souza J, Bandoli JG, ad Silva DJ, and Lopes CRN. “Phospholipids in experimental atherosclerosis.” Arzeim-Frosch. (Drug Res.) 24: 11-16 (1974)

Byers SO and Friedman M. “Effect of infusion of phosphatides upon atherosclerotic aorta in situ and as an ocular aortic implant.” J. Lipid Res. 1: 343-348 (1960)

Campannacci L, Guarnieri G, Faccine L, and Bellini G. “Response of plasma lipid fractions to adminstration of exogenous phospholipids.” Arzneim-Frosch. (Drug Res.) 25: 1306-1308 (1975)

Cazzolato AP, Bittolo BG, Quinci GB, Belussi F, Mantero O, and Conti F. “Modification of lipids, lipoproteins and plasma apolipoproteins induced by a phospholipid extracted from calf liver.” Pharm. Res. Comm. 9: 885-892 (1977) Friedman M, Byers SO, and Rosenman RH. “Resolution of aortic atherosclerotic infiltrations in rabbit by phosphatide infusion.” Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 95: 586-588 (1957)

Howard AN, Patelski J, Bowyer DE, and Gresham GA. “Atherosclerosis induced in hypercholesterolemic baboons by immunoloigcal injury and the effects of intravenous polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine.” Atherosclerosis 14: 17-29 (1971)

Maurukas J and Thomas RG. “Treatment of experimental atherosclerosis in the rabbit with L,D alpha (dimyristoly) lecithin.” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 55: 30-37 (1960)

Patelski J, Bowyer DE, Howard AN, Jennings IW, Thorne CJR, and Gresham GA. “Modification of enzyme activities in experimental atherosclerosis in the rabbit.” Atherosclerosis 12: 41-53 (1970)

Stafford WW and Day CE. “Regression of atherosclerosis effected by intravenous phospholipid.” Artery 1: 106-114 (1975)

Chapter 1–Life in the Zone
Books
Pele with Fish RL. “My Life and the Beautiful Game: The Autobiography of
Pele.” Garden City. New York, NY (1977)

Pritikin N and McGrady P. “The Pritikin Program for Diet and Exercise.” Grosset
and Dunlap, New York, NY. (1979)

Articles
“Are You Eating Right?” Consumer Reports pp. 644-651 (1992)

Chapter 2–The Fattening of America
Books
Atkins RC. “Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution.”
Bantam. New York, NY (1972)

Bailey C. “The New Fit or Fat” Houghton Mufflin. Boston, MA (1991)

Bernstein RK. “Diabetes Type II” Prentice Hall Press. New York, NY. (1990)

Erzin C and Kowalski RE. “The Endocrine Control Diet.” Harper and Row. New York, NY (1990)

Heller RF and Heller RF. “The Carbohydrate Addicts’s Diet.” Penguin. New York, NY. (1991)

Tarnower H and Baker SS. “The Complete Scarsdale Medical Diet.” Rawson Wade. New York, NY (1978)

Articles
Brandes J. “Insulin induced overating in the rat.” Physiol. Rev. 18:1095-1102 (1977)

Colditz GA. “Economic costs of obesity.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55: 503S-507S (1992) Coulston AM, Liu GC, and Reaven GM. “Plasma glucose, insulin and lipid responses to high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets in normal humans.” Metabol. 32: 52-56 (1983)

Kern PA, Ong JM, Soffan B, and Carty J. “The effects of weight loss on the
activity and expression of adipose-tissue lipoprotein lipire in very obese individuals.” N. Eng. J. Med. 322: 1053-1059 (1990)

Felig P and Wahren J. “Fuel homeostasis in exercise.” N. Eng. J. Med. 293: 1078-1084 (1975)

Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. “Energy and Protein Requirements” WHO Techical Report, serial no. 724 (1985)

Friedman JE and Lemon PWA. “Effect of chronic endurance exercise on retention of dietary protein.” Int. J. Sports Med 10: 118-223 (1989)

Grandjean AC. “Macronutrient intake of U.S. athletes compared with the general population and recomendations made to athletes.” Am. J. Clin. Nut. 49:1070-1076 (1989)

Gontzea I, Sutzescu R, and Damitrache S. “The influence of adaptation to physical effort on nitorgen balance in man.” Nutr. Rep. Int. 11: 231-236 (1975) Gontzea I. Sutzescu R, and Dumictrache S. “The influence of muscular activity on nitrogen balance and on need of man for protein.” Nutr. Rep. Int. 10: 35-39 (1974) Hamm P, Shekelle RB, and Stamler J. “Large fluctuations in body weight during young adulthood and 25-years risk of coronary death in me.” Am. J. Epidemiol. 129: 312-318 (1989) Hannon BM, and Lohman TG. “The energy cost of overweight in the United States.” American J. Public Health 68: 765-767 (1978)

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, and Tyalor RH. “Glycemic index of foods: a physiological bBasis forcarbohydrate exchange.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 362-366 (1981)

Kaczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, Comptede SM, Johnson CL. “Increasing prevalence of overweight among U.S. adults.” JAMA 272: 205-239 (1994)

Kanarek R, Marks-Kaufman R, and Lipeles B. “Increased carbohydrate intake is a function of insulin administration in rats.” Physiol. Behav. 25: 779-782 (1980)

Kekwick A and Pawar GLS. “Calorie intake in relation to body weight changes in the obese.” Lancet ii: 155-161(1956) Kekwick A and Pawan GLS. “Metabolic study in human obesity with isocaloric diets high in fat, protein and carbohydrate.” Metab. 6: 447-460 (1957)

Laurier D, Guiguet M, Chan NP, Wells JA, and Valleron AJ. “Prevalence of obesity: a comparative survey in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.” Int. J. Obesity 16: 565-572 (1992) Lee IM and Paffenbarger RS. “Change in body weight and longevity” J. Am. Med. Assoc. 268: 2045-2049 (1992) Lisser L, Odell PM, D’Agostino RB, Stokes J, Kraeger BE, Bellanger MA, and Brownell KD. “Variability of body weight and health outcomes in the Framingham population.” N. Eng. J. Med. 324: 1839-1844 (1991)

Meredith CN, Zockin MJ, Frontera WR, Evans WJ. “Dietary protein requirements and body protein metabolism in endurance-trained men.” J. Appl. Physiol. 66: 2850-2856 (1989)

Norman AW and Litwack G. “Pancretic Hormones” in Hormones. Academic Press. New York, NY. pp. 264-319 (1987) Sadur CN and Eckel RH. “Insulin stimulation of adipose tissue lipoprotein Lipase” J. Clin. Invest. 69: 1119-1123 (1982)

Swisklocki AM, Chen YD, Goley MA, Cheng MO, and Reaven GM. “Insulin suppression of plasma-free fatty acid concentration in normal and indiviudals or patients with type II (non-insulin dependent) diabetes.” Diabetologia 30: 622-626 (1987) Wolever TMS. “Relationship between dietary fiber content and composition in foods and the glycemic index.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51: 72-75 (1990)

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AA, and Josse RG. “The glycemic index: methodology and chemical implications.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54: 846-854 (1991)

Young VR and Pellart PL. “Plant protein in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59: 203S-212S (1994) Young VR. “Protein and amino acid requirements in humans”. Scand. J. Nutr. 36: 47-56 (1992) Young VR, Bier DM, and Pellert PL. “A theoretical basis for increasing current estimates of the amino acid requirements in adult men with experimental support.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 50: 80-92 (1989) Chapter 3-The Hormonal Effects of Food Books Atkins RC. “Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution.” M. Evans. New York, NY (1992)

Chapter 3–The Hormonal Effects of Food
Books
Bernstein RK. “Diabetes Type II” Prentice Hall Press. New York, NY. (1990)

Eades M. “Thin So Fast” Warner Books. New York, NY (1989)

Erzin C and Kowalski RE. “The Endocrine Control Diet.” Harper and Row. New York, NY (1990)

Heller RF and Heller RF. “The Carbohydrate Addicts’s Diet.” Penguin. New York, NY. (1991)

Norman AW and Litwack G. “Hormones.” Academic Press. New York, NY.
(1987)

Winick M (ed). “Nutrition and Gastroenterology.” John Wiley and Sons. New York, NY (1980)

Articles
Unger RH. “Glucagon and the insulin:glucagon ratio in diabetes and other catabolic illnesses.” Diabetes 20 834-838 (1971)

Chapter 4–Eicosanoid-Short Course
Books
Chakrin LW and Bailey DM (eds.) “The Leukotrienes.” Academic Press. New York, NY (1984)

 

Herman AG, Van houtle PM, Denolin H, and Goossons A (eds). “Cardiovascular Pharmacology of Prostglandins.” Raven Press. New York,NY (1982)

Lands, WEM. “Fish and Human Health,” Academic Press. New York, NY (1986)

Ninneman JL. “Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and the Immune Response”
Cambridge University Press. New York, NY (1988) Thaler-Dao H, Crastes de Paulet A, and Paoletti R. “Icosanoids and Cancer.” Raven Press, New York. (1984)

Willis AL. “Handbook of Eicosanoids, Prostglandins and Related Lipids,” CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL (1987)

Articles
Bergstrom S, Rhyhage R, Samuelsson B, and Sorval J. “The Structure of prostaglandins E1, E1a and F1B” J. Biol. Chem. 238: 3555-3565 (1963)
Burr GO and Burr MR. “On the nature and role of the fatty acids essential in nutrition.” J. Biol Chem. 86: 587-621 (1930) Burr GO and Burr MR. “A new deficiency disease produced by rigid exclusion of fat from the diet.” J. Biol. Chem. 82: 345-367 (1929)

Hamberg M and Samuelsson B. “Detection and isolation of an endoperoxide
intermediate in prostaglandin bysyntheses.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 899-903 (1973)

Hamberg M, Swensson J,Wakabayashi T, and Samuelsson B. “Isolation and structure of two prostaglandin endoperoxides that cause platelet aggregation.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 345-349 (1974)

Hamberg M, Svensson J, and Samuelsson B. “Thromboxanes: a new group of biologically active compounds derived from prostaglandin endoperoxides.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 2994-2998 (1975)

Johnson RA, Morton DR, Kinver JA, Gorman RR, McGuire JC, Sun FF, Whither N, Bunting S, Salmon J, Moncada S, and Vane JR. “The chemical structure of prostaglandin X (prostacyclin).” Prostaglandins 12: 915-928 (1976)

Pek SB and Walsh MF. “Leukotrienes stimulate insulin released from rat pancreas” Proc. Nat. Acad Sci USA 82: 2199-2202 (1984)

Metz S, van Rollins M, Strife R, Fujimoto W, and Robertson RP. “Lipoxygenase pathway in islet endrocrine cells–oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid promotes insulin release.” J. Clin. Invest. 71: 1191-1205 (1983)

Metz, S., Fujimoto, W., and Robertson, RO. “Modulation of insulin secretion by cyclic AMP and prostagladin E.” Metabolsim 31: 1014-1033 (1982)

Moncada S. Gryglewsk R., Bunting S. and Vane JR. “An enzyme isolated from arteries transforms prostaglandin endoperoxides to an unstable substance that inhibits platelet aggregation,” Nature (London) 263: 663-665 (1976)

Robertson RP, Gavarenski DJ, Porte D, and Bierman EL. “Inhibition of in vivo insulin secretion by prostaglandin E1″ J. Clin Invest. 54: 310-315 (1974)

Robertson RP. “Prostaglandins, glucose homeostasis and diabetes mellitus.” Ann. Rev. Med. 34: 1-12 (1983)

Samuelsson B. “On incorporation of oxygen in the conversion of 8, 11, 14 eicoatrienoic acid into prostaglandin E.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89: 3011-3013 (1965)

Sears B. “Essential fatty acids and dietary endocronology.” J. Adv. Med. 6:
211-224 (1993)

Serhan CN. “Lipoxin biosysnthesis and its impact in inflamatory and vascular events.” Biochim Biophys. Acta 1212: 1-25 (1994)

von Euler US. “On the specific vasodilating and plain muscle stimulating substances from accessory genital glands in men and certain animals (prostaglandins and vesiglandin).” J. Physiol (London) 88: 213-234 (1936)

Chapter 5–Elite Athletes in the Zone
Books
Haas R. “Eat to Win” Rawson Associates. New York, NY (1983)

Viru A. “Hormones in Muscular Activity,” CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL (1985)

Articles
Balson PD, Ekblom B, and Sjodin B. “Enhanced oxygen availability during
high intensity intermittent exercise decreases anaerobic metabolite concentrations in blood.” Acta Physiol Scand 150 455-456 (1994)

 

Chandler RM, Byrne HK, Patterson JG, and Ivy JL. “Dietary supplements affect the anabolic hormones after weight-training exercise.” J. Appl. Physiol 76: 839-845 (1994)

Crist DM, Peake GT, Egan PA, and Waters DL. “Body composition response to exogenenous GH during training in highly conditioned adults.” J. Appl. Physiol. 65: 579-584 (1988)

Ekblom B and Berglund B. “Effect of erythropoietin administration on maximal aerobic power.” Scand J Med Sci Sports 1 88-93 (1991)

Gaitanos G, Williams C, Boobis LH, and Brooks S. “Human muscle metabolism during intermittent maximal exercise.” J Appl Physiol 75 712-719 (1993)

Lamb DR, Rinehardt KF, Bartels RL, Sherman WM, and Snook JT. “Dietary carbohydrate and intensity of interval swim training.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52: 1058-1063 (1990)

Muoio DM, Leddy JJ. Horvath PJ, Awad AB, and Pendergast DR. “Effect of
dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO2 and endurance in runners.” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26: 81-88 (1994)

Phinney SD, Bistrian BR, Evans WJ, Gervino E, and Blackburn GL. “The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction.” Metabolism 32: 769-776 (1983)

Sherman WM, Doyle JA, Lamb DR, and Strauss RH. “Dietary carbohydrate, muscle glycogen and exercise performance during 7d of training,” Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 57: 21-31 (1993)

Whitten P. “Stanford’s Secret Weapon.” Swimming World 34: 28-33 (1993)

Zawadzki KM, Yaspelkis BB, and Ivy JL. “Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise.” J. Appl. Physiol. 72: 1854-1859 (1992)

Chapter 6–Exercise in the Zone
Books
Bailey C.. “The New Fit or Fat.” Houghton Mifflin. Boston, MA (1991)

Bailey C. “Smart Exercise,” Houghton Mifflin. Boston, MA (1994)

Edwards, S. “The Heart Rate Monitor Book.” Fleet Feet Press, Sacrsmento, Ca. 1992

Norman AW and Litwock G. “Hormones.” Academic Press. New York, NY (1987)

Stanford, B.A. and Shimer, P. “Fitness Without Exercise.” Warner Books. New York, NY (1990)

Viru A. Hormones in Muscular Activity. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Fla. (1983)

Articles
Astrom C. and Trojaboy W. “Effect of growth hormone on human sleep
energy.” Clinical Endrocrinology 36: 241-245 (1992)

Astrom C and Lundholm J. “Growth hormone deficient young adults have
decreased deep sleep.” Neuroendocrinology 51: 82-84 (1990)

Astrom C, Petersen SA, and Lindholm J. “The influence of growth hormone in sleep in adults with growth hormone deficiencies.” Clinical Endrocrinology 33: 495-500 (1990)

Bak JF, Moeller N, and Schmitic O. “Effects of growth hormone on fuel utilization and muscle glycogen sysnthesis activity in normal humans.” Amer. J. Physiol. 260: E736-742 (1991)

Chatzipanteli K, Rudolph S, and Axelrod L. “Coordinate control of lipolysis by prostaglandins E2 and prostacyclin in rat adipose tissue.” Diabetes 41: 927-935 (1992)

Crist DM, Peake GT, Egan PA, and Waters DL. “Body composition respone to exogenenous GH during training in highly conditioned adults.” J. Appl. Physiol. 65: 579-584 (1988)

Galbo H, Holst JJ, and Christensen NJ. “Glucagon and plasma catecholamine response to graded and prolonged exercise in man.” J. Appl. Physiol. 38: 70-76 (1975)

Galbo H, Holst JJ, and Christensen NJ. “The effect of different diets of insulin on the hormonal response to prolonged exercise.” Acta Physiol Scand. 107: 19-32 (1979)

Hartman ML, Clayton PE, Johnson ML, et al. “A low-dose euglycemic infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I rapidly suppresses fasting-enhanced pulsatile growth hormone secretion in humans.” J. Clin. Invest. 91: 2453-2462 (1993)

Janssen PGJM. “Heart rate monitoring for estimation of training intensity.” in Medicine in Sports Training and Coaching. Karvonen J, Lemon PWR, and Iliev I (eds). Krager. Basel, Switzerland pp. 115-159 (1992)

Metiver G. “The effects of long-lasting physical exercise and training on hormonal regulation in metobolic adaptation to prolonged physical exercise.” Howard H and Poortmann JR. (eds). Birkhauser Verlag. Basel, Switzerland. pp 276-285 (1975)

Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL and Hsieh C. “Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni.” N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 615-613 (1986)

Paffenbarger RS, Wing AL, and Hyde RT. “Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni.” Am. J. Epidemiology 108: 161-175 (1978)

Paffenbarger RS and Hale WE. “Work activity and coronary heart mortality.” N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 1109-1114 (1970)

Racette SB, Schoeller DA, Kushner RF, Neil KM, and Herling-Iaffaldano K. “Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women.” Am J Clin Nutr 61 486-494 (1995)

Roth J, Gluck SM, Yalow RS, and Berson SA. “The influence of blood glucose on the plasma concentration of growth hormone.” Diabetes 13: 355-361 (1964)

Rudman D, Feller AG, Hagraj HS, Gerhans GA, Lalitha PY, and Goldberg AF. “Effects of human growth hormone in man over 60 years old.” N. Engl. J. Med. 323: 1-6 1990.

Scheele K. Harzog W, Ruthaler G, Wirth A, and Wencher H. “Metabolic adaptation
to prolonged exercise.” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 41: 101-106 (1982)

Schofield JG. “Prostaglandin E1 and the release of growth hormon in vitro.” Nature 228: 179 (1970)

Takahoski Y, Kipmis DM, and Daughaday WH. “Growth hormone secretion during sleep.” J. Clin. Invest. 47: 2079-2090 (1968)

Weltman A, Weltman JY, Schurrer R, Evans WS, Veldhuis JD, and Rogal AD. “Endurance training amplifies the pulsatile release of growth hormone: effects of training intensity.” J. Appl. Physiol. 72: 2188-2196 (1992)

Yamashita S and Melmed S. “Effects of insulin on rat anterior pituitary cells: inhibition of growth hormone secretion and mRNA levels.” Diabetes 35: 440-447 (1986)

Chapter 7–Boundaries of the Zone
Books
Atkins RC. “Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution.” M. Evans. New York, NY (1992)

Norman AW and Litwack G. “Hormones.” Academic Press. New York, NY (1987)

Articles
Dek SB and Walsh MF. “Leukotrienes stimulate insulin release from rat pancreas.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 2199-2202 (1985)

Kern PA, Ong JM, Soffan B, and Carty J. “The effects of weight loss on the
activity and expression of adipose-tissue lipoprotein lipase in very obese individuals.” N. Eng. J. Med. 322: 1053-1059 (1990)

Hamm P, Shekelle RB, and Stamler J. “Large fluctuations in body weight during young adulthood and 25-years risk of coronary death in me.” Am. J. Epidemiol. 129: 312-318 (1989)

Lee IM and Paffenbarger RS. “Change in body weight and longevity” JAMA 268: 2045-2049 (1992)

Lisser L, Odell PM, D’Agostino RB, Strokes J, Kreger BE, Belanger AJ, and Brownell KD. “Variability of body weight and health outcomes in the Framingham population.” N. Eng. J. Med. 324: 1839-1844 (1991)

Sadur CN and Echel RH. “Insulin stimulation of adipose tissue lipoportein lipase.” J. Clin Invest. 69: 1119-1123 (1982)

Silver MJ, Hoch W, Koesis JJ, IngermanCM, and Smith JB. “Arachidonic acid causes sudden death in rabbits.” Science 183: 1035-1037 (1974)

Simsolo RB, Ong, JM, Saffari B, and Kern PA. “Effect of improved diabetes control onthe expression of lipoprotein lipase in human adipose tissue.” J. Lipid Res. 33: 89-95 (1992)

Westphal SA, Gannon MC, and Nutrall FQ. “Metabolic response to glucose
ingested with various amounts of protein.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62: 267-272 (1990)

Yost TJ and Eckel RH. “Fat calories may be preferenitally stored in reduced-obese women: a permissive pathway for resumption of the obese state.” J. Clin. Endocrin. 67: 259-264 (1988)

Chapter 8–Your Dietary Roadmap to the Zone
Books
Eades, M. “Thin So Fast.” Warner Books. New York, NY (1989)

Articles
Baile CA, McLaughlin CL, and Della-Fera MA. “Role of cholecysotokinin
and opiod peptides in control of food intake.” Physiol. Rev. 66: 172-234 (1986)

Del Valle J and Yamada T. “The gut as an endocrine organ.” Ann. Rev. Med. 41: 447-455 (1990)

Friedman JE and Lemon PWR. Effect on chronic endurance exercise on retention of dietary protein.Ó Int. J. Sports Med. 10: 118-123 (1989)

Gibbs J, Young RD, and Smith GP. “Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in rats.” J. Com. Physiol Psychol. 84: 488-495 (1973)

Gontzea I, Sutzesau, P and Dumitrache S. “Influence of muscular activity on nitrogen balance and on the need of man for proteins.” Nut. Rep. Int. 10: 35-39 (1974)

Gontzea I, Sutzesau P, and Dumitrache S. “The influence of adaptation to physical effort on nitrogen balance in man.” Nutr. Rep. Int. 11: 231-236 (1975)

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS Vukson S, Brighenti F, Cunnane SC, Rao AV, Jenkins AL, Buckley G, and Singer W. “Nibbling versus gorging: metabolic advantages of increased meal frequency.” N. Eng. J. Med. 32:1 929-934 (1989)

Meredith CN, Zackin MJ. Frontera WR, and Evans WJ “Dietary protein
requirements and body protein metabolism in endurance-training men.” J. App. Physiol. 6: 2850-2856 (1989)

Schwartz MW, Figlewicz DP, Baskin DG, Woods SC, and Porte D. “Insulin in the brain a hormonal regulation of energy balance.” Endocrine Rev. 43: 387-414 (1992)

Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD, and Atkinson SA. “Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass.” J. Appl. Physiol. 64: 187-193 (1988)

Welch IML, Bruce C, Hill SE, and Reed NW. “Duodenal and ileal lipid supresses post-prandial blood glucose and insulin responses in men: possible implication for dietary management of diabetes mellitus.” Clin Sci 72: 209-216 (1987)

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AC, and Josse RG. “The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implication.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54: 846-854 (1991)

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Collier GR, Lee R, Wong GS, and Josse RG.
“Metabolic response to test meals containingt different carbohydrates foods: relationship between rate of digestion and plasma insulin response.” Nutr. Res. 8: 573-581 (1988)

Chapter 9– Evolution and the Zone
Books Crawford M and Marsh D. “The Driving Force. Food, Evolution and the Future.” Harper and Row, New York (1989)

Eaton SB, Shostalle M, and Konner M. “The Paleolithic Prescription.” Harper and Row. New York, NY (1988).

Hayflick L. “How and Why We Age.” Ballantine Books. New York, NY (1994)

Articles
Aiello LC and Wheeler P. “The expensive-tissue hypothesis.” Current
Anthropology 36 199-221 (1995)

Eaton SB and Konner MJ. “Paleolithic nutrition.” N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 283-289 (1985)

Eaton SB. “Humans, lipids and evolution.” Lipids, 27: 814-820 (1992)

Hollenbeck C and Reaven GM. “Variations in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in healthy individuals with normal glucose tolerance.” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 64: 1169-1173 (1987)

Chapter 10–Vitamins, Minerals and the Zone
Articles
2 Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene, Cancer Prevention Study Group. “The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on incidences of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers.” N. Eng. J. Med. 330: 1029-1035 (1994)

Block G, Patterson B, and Safar A. “Fruit, vegetables and cancer prevention.” Nutr. Cancer. 18: 1-29 (1992)

Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, Gauo W, Damsey SM, Wang GQ, Yang CS, Zheng SF. Gail M, and Li GY. “Nutritional intervention trials in Linxion, China.” J. Nat. Cancer Res. 85: 1483-1492 (1993)

Colditz GA, Branch LG, Lipnick RJ, Willett WC, Rosner B, Posner BM, and Hennekens CH. “Increased green and leafy vegetable intake and lowered cancer deaths in an elderly population.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41: 32-36 (1985)

Polyp Prevention Group. “A clinical trial of antioxident vitamins to prevent colorectal ademona.” N. Engl. J. Med. 331: 141-147 (1994)

Rimon EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucc E, Colditz GA, and Willett WC. “Vitamin E consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in men.” N. Engl. J. Med. 328: 1450-1456 (1993)

Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Mason JE, Colditz GA, Rosner B, and Willett WC. “Vitamin E consumption and risk of coronary disease in women.” N. Eng. J. Med. 32: 1444-1449 (1993)

Shekelle RB, Lepper M, and Liu S. “Dietary vitamin A and risk of cancer in the Western Electric Study.” Lancet ii: 1185-1190 (1981)

Steinmetz KA and Potter JC. “Vegetables, fruit and cancer.” Cancer Causes Control 325: 325-357 (1991)

Ziegler RG, Subar AF, Craft DE, Ursin G, Patterson BH, and Graubard BT. “Does beta carotene explain why reduced cancer risk is associated with vegetable and fruit intake?” Cancer Res. 52: 2060s-2066s (1992)

Chapter 11– Aspirin the Wonder Drug
Books
Castleman M. “An Aspirin a Day.” Hyperion. New York, NY (1993)

Herman AG Venhoutte PM, Denolin H, and Gooseen A (eds). “Cardiovacular Pharmacology of Protaglandins.” Raven Press. New York, NY (1992)

Mann CC and Plummer ML. “The Aspirin Wars.” Alfred Knopf. New York, NY (1991)

Ninneman JL. “Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and the Immune Response”
Cambridge University Press. New York, NY (1988)

Articles
Basheva G, Nasslg ML, Rice AL, Counts RB, and Mistoch GA. “Preoperative aspirin therapy and the reoperation for bleeding after coronary and artery bypass surgery.” Arch. Int. Med. 15: 89-93 (1991)

Benigni A, Gregorini G, Frusca T, Chiabrando C, Ballerini S, Volcamonico A, Orisho S, Piccelli A, Pincroli V, Ianelli R, Gastaldi A, and Remuzzi G. “Effect of low dose aspirin on fetal and maternal gererating thromboxane by platelets in women at risk for pegnancy-induced hypertension.” N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 357-362 (1989)

Brunda MJ, Haberman RB, Holden HT. “Inhibition of natural killer cell activity by prostaglandin.” J. Immunol. 124: 2682-2587 (1980)

Burch JW, Stanford N, and Majerus PW. “Inhibition of platelet prostaglandin synthesis by oral aspirin.” J. Clin Invest. 62: 314-319 (1979)

Coceani F, Bishai I, Hynes N, Lees J, and Sirko S. “Prostaglandin E2 as central messenger of fevers” in New Trends in Lipid Mediators Research. Brogeret P and Robinson L (eds). S. Karger. Basel, Switzerland. pp 183-186 (1989)

Collins PW. “Misoprostol; discovery development and chemical applications.” Med. Res. Rev. 10: 149-172 (1990)

Craven LL. “Prevention of coronary and cerebral thrombosis.” Mississippi Valley Med. J. 78: 213-218 (1956)

Dutch TIA Trial Study Group. “A comparison of two doses of aspirin (30 mg and 283 mg a day) in patients after a transient ischemic attack or minor stroke.” N. Engl. J. Med. 325: 1261-1266 (1991)

Ferreria SH, Moncada S, and Vane JR. “Indomethacin and aspirin abolish
prostaglandin release from the spleen.” Nature (London) New Biol. 231: 237-239 (1971)

Hamberg M, Svensson J, and Samuelsson B. “Thromboxanes: a new group of biologically active compounds dervied from prostaglandin and peroxides.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 2994-2998 (1975)

Hawthorne AB, Mahida YR, Cole AT, and Hawkey CJ. “Aspirin-induced gastric muscosal damage.” Br. J. Clin. Pharmocology 32: 77-83 (1991)

Imperiate TF and Stollenwerk-Petrulles A. “A meta anaysis of low-dose aspirin for preventing of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disease.” JAMA 266: 260-264 (1991)

Lewis DH, Davis JW, Archibald DG, Steinte WE, Smitherman TC, Doherty JE, Schnaper HW, LeWinter MM, Linares E., Pouget JM, Sabharwal SC, Chandler E, and DeMotis H. “Protective effects of aspirin against acute myocardial infarction and death in men with unstable angina.” N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 396-403 (1983)

Paganini-Hill A, Chad A, Ross RK, and Henderson BE. “Aspirin use and chronic diseases.” Br. Med. J. 299: 1247-1250 (1989)

Roth GJ and Majerus PW. “The mechanism of the effect of aspirin on human platelets.” J. Clin. Invest. 50: 624-632 (1975)

Roth GJ and Siok CJ. “Acetylation of the NH2-terminal series of prostaglandin synthesase by aspirin.” J. Biol. Chem. 253: 3782-3784 (1975)

Roth GJ, Stanford N,. and Majerus PW. “Acetylation of prostaglandin synthesase by aspirin.” Proc. Nat. Acad Sci. USA 72: 3073-3076 (1975)

SALT Collaborative Group. “Swedish aspirin low-dose trial (SALT) of 75 mg aspirin as secondary prophylaxis after cerebravasular schemic agents.” Lancet 338: 1345-1349 (1991)

Steering Committee of the Physician Health Study Research Group. “Preliminary report findings from the aspirin component of the ongoing physician health study.” N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 262-264 (1988)

Szczeklik A. “Aspirin induced asthma.” Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 90: 70-75 (1989)

Taiwo YO and Levine JD. “Prostaglandins inhibit endogenous pain control
mechanism by blocking transmission at spinal noradrengenic synapses.” J. Neurosci 8: 1346-1349 (1988)

Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, and Heath CW. “Aspirin use and reduced risk of fatal colon cancer.” N. Engl. J. Med. 325: 1593-1596 (1991)

Uda R, Horiguchi S, Ito S, Hydro M, and Hayaishi O. “Nocieptive effects induced by intrathecal adminstration of prostaglandins D2, E2, or F2 alpha in conscious mice.” Brain Res. 510: 26-32 (1990)

Vane JR. “Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action of aspirinlike drugs.” Nature (London) New Biol. 231: 232-235 (1971)

Weiss JH. “Aspirin; a dangerous drug?”JAMA 229: 1221-1222 (1974)

Williams WR. “Aspirin-sensitive asthma.” Int. Arch. Allergy and Appl.Immunol. 95: 303-308 (1991)

Chapter 12– Eicosanoids-Long Course
Books
Herman AG, Van houtle PM, Denolin H, and Goossen A (eds). Cardiovascular Pharmacology of the Prostaglandins. Raven Press. New York, NY (1982)

Jensen RG. “The Lipids of Human Milk.” CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL (1989)

Lands WEM. “Fish and Human Health,” Academic Press. New York, NY (1986)

Ninnemam JL. “Prostaglandins, Leukotriene, and the Immune Response,”
Cambridge University Press. New York, NY (1988)

Schror K and Sinziner H (eds). “Prostaglandins in Clinical Research.” Liss. New York, NY (1989)

Sinclair A and Gibson R. “Essential Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids,” Amer. Oil Chem, Soc. Champaign, IL (1992)

Sinzinger H and Rogatti W (eds). Prostaglandin E1 in Atherosclerosis.
Springer-Verlag. New York, NY (1986)

Watkins WD, Petersen MB, and Fletcher JR. (eds). “Prostaglandins in Clinical Practice.” Raven Press. New York, NY (1989)

Willis, AL “Handbook of Eicosanoids, Prostagladins and Related Lipids.” CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. (1987)

Articles
Adam O. “Polyenoic fatty acid metobolism and effects on prosaglandin
biosynthesis in adults and aged persons.” in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids. Amer Oil Chem Soc Press. Champaign, IL. pp 213-219 (1987)

Addison RF, Zinck ME, Ackman RG, and Sipos JC. “Behavior of DDT,
polychlorinated bybeniyls (PCB’s) and dieldrin at various stages of refining of marine oils for eidble use,” J. Am Oil. Chem. Soc. 55: 391-394 (1978)

Addison RF and Ackman RG. “Removal of organic chlorine pesticides and
polychlorinated biphenyls from marine oils during refining and hydrogenation for edible use. ” J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 51: 192-194 (1974)

Ayala S, Gasper G, Brenner RR, Peluffo, R and Kunau WJ. “Fate of linoleic, arachidonic and docosatetraonoic acids in rat testicles.” J. Lipid Res. 14: 296-305 (1973)

Blond JP and Lemarchel P. “A study on the effect of alpha linolenic acid on the desaturation of dihomo gamma linolenic acid using rat liver homogenates,” Repro. Nutr. Dev. 24: 1-10 (1984)

Bourre JM, Piciotti M, and Dumont O. ” Delta 6 desaturere in brain and liver during development and aging” Lipids 25: 354-356 (1990)

Brenner RR. “Nutrition and hormonal factors influencing desaturation of essential fatty acids.” Prog. Lipid Res. 20: 41-48 (1982)

Chapkin RS, Somer SD, and Erickson KL. “Dietary manipulation of macrophage phosphlipid classes: selective increase of dihomogamma linoleic acid” Lipids 23: 776-770 (1988)

Cleland LG Jones MJ, Neuman MA, D’Angel M, and Gibson RA. “Linoleate inhibits EPA incorporation from dietary fish oil supplements in human subjects.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55: 395-399 (1992)

Collins PW. “Misoprostol: discovery, development and chemical applications.” Med. Res. Rev. 10: 149-172 (1990)

Earle CM, Kenough EJ, Wisniewski ZS, Tulloch AGS, Lord DJ, Walters GR, and Glatthear C. “Prostaglandin E1 therapy for impotence, comparison with papaverine.” J. Urology 143: 57-59 (1990)

Gann PH, Hennekens CH, Sacks FM, Grodstein F, Giovannucci EL, and Stampfer MJ. “Prospective study of plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer,” J. National Cancer Institute 86: 281-286 (1994)

Garcia PT and Holman RT. “Competitive inhibitions in the metabolism of
polyunsaturated fatty acids studied via the composition of the phospholipids, triglyercides and cholesterol esters of rat tissues,” J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 42: 1137-1141 (1965)

Gauglitz EJ and Greegan EH. “Adsorptive bleaching and molecular distillation of menhaden oil” J. Amer. Oil Chem Soc. 42: 561-563 (1965)

Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, and Willett WC. “Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men.” Cancer Res. 54: 2390-2397 (1994)

Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Chute CC, and Willett WC. “Prospective study of dietary fat and rich of prostate cancer.” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 85: 1571-1579 (1993)

Gibson RA and Kneebone GM. “Fatty acid composition of human colostrum and mature human milk,” Am. J. Clin Nutr. 34: 252-256 (1981)

Kirtland, S.J. “Prostglandin E1: A review.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 32: 165-174 (1988)

Koosis Vand Sondergaard J. “PGE1 in normal skin: methodological evaluation topographical distribution and data related to sex and age.” Arch Dermatol. Res. 275: 9-13 (1983)

Hill EG, Johnson SB, Lawson LD, Mahfouz MM, and Holman RT. “Perturbation of the metabolism of essential fatty acids by dietary partially hydrogenated vegetable oil.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 953-957 (1982)

Horrobin DF. “Loss of delta 6 desatures activity as a key factor in aging.” Med. Hypothesis 7: 1211-1220 (1981)

Mensink RP and Katan MB. “Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein levels in healthy subjects.” N. Engl. J. Med. 323: 439-445 (1990)

Nassar BA, Huang YS, Manku MS, Das UM, Morse N, and Horrobin DF. “The influence of dietary manipulation with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on liver and plasma phospholipids fatty acids in rats.” Lipids 21: 652-656 (1986)

Phinney S. “Potential risk of prolonged gamma-linolenic acid use.” Ann. Int Med 120 692 (1994)

See J, Shell W, Matthews O, Canizales C, Vargos M, Giddings J, and Cerrone J.”Prostaglandin E1 infusion after angioplasty in humans inhibits abrupt occulsion and early restenosis,” Adv. Prost. Throboxane and Leukotriene Res. 17: 266-270 (1987)

Schofield JG.”Prostglandin E1 and the release of growth hormone in vitro.” Nature 228: 179 (1970)

Stone KJ, Willis AL, Hurt M, Kirtland SJ, Kernoff PBA, and McNichol GF. “The metabolism of dihomo gamma linolenic acid in man,” Lipids 14: 174-180 (1979)

Williams LL, Doody DM, and Horrocks LA. “Serum fatty acid proportions are altered during the year following acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.” Lipids 23: 981-988 (1988)

Chapter 13–The Zone and Your Heart
Books
Bernstein RK. “Diabetes Type II”. Prentice Hall. New York, NY (1990)

Lands WEM. “Fish and Human Health”. Academic Press. New York, NY. (1986)

Moore TJ. “Heart Failure”. Random House. New York, NY (1989)

Moore TJ. “Lifespan”. Simon and Shuster. New York, NY (1993)

Sinzinger H and Rogatti W (eds.) “Prostaglandin E1 in Atherosclerosis”.
Spinger-Verlag. New York, NY. (1986)

Articles
“National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Workshop on antihypertensive
treatment: the benefits, costs, and choices.” Hypertension 13: 1-172 (1989)

 

Black HR. “The coronary artery disease paradox. The role of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance and implications for therapy.” J. Cardiovascular Pharmacol. 15:265-385 (1990)

Blakenhorn DH Nessim SA, Johnson RL, Sanmarco ME, Azen SP, and Cahsin-Hamphill L. “Benefical effectsof combined colestipol-niacin therapy in coronary atherosclerosis and coronary venous bypass grafts.” JAMA 257: 3233-3240 (1987)

Blankenhorn DH, Azen SP, Kramsch DM, Mack MJ, Cashlin-Hemphill L, Hodis HN, DeBoer LWV, Mahrer RP, Masteller MJ, Vailas LI, Alaupovic P, Hirsch LJ, and MARS Research Group. “Coronary angiographic changes with lovastatin therapy: the monitored atherosclerotic regression study (MARS)” Ann. Int. Med. 119: 969-976 (1993)

Brenner RR. “Nutritional and hormonal factors influencing desaturation of essential fatty acids.” Prog. Lipid Res. 20: 41-47 (1982)

Baba T and Neugebauer S. “The link between insulin resistance and hypertension: effects of antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic drugs on insulin senisitivity.” Drugs 47: 383-404 (1994)

Burnand B. and Feinstein AR. “The role of diagnostic inconsistency in changing rates of occurence for coronary heart diseas.” J. Clin. Epidemol. 45: 929-940 (1992)

Chen YD, Coulston AM, Ming-Yue Z, Hollenbeck CB, and Reaven GM. “Why do low-fat high-carbohydrate diets accentuate postprandial lipemia in patients with NIDDM?” Diabetes Care 18 10-16 (1995)

Committee of Principal Investigators. “A co-operative trial in primary prevention of ischaemic heart disease using clofibrate.” Br. Heart J. 40: 1069-1118 (1978)

Dayton S and Pearce ML. “Prevention of coronary heart disease and other
complications of arteriosclerosis by modified diet.” Amer. J. Med. 46: 751-762 (1969)

Dehmer GJ, Popma JJ, van den Ber EK, Eichorn, EJ, Prewitt JB, Campbell WB, Jennings L, Willerson JT, and Schmitz JM. “Reduction in the rate of early restenosis after coronary angioplsty by a diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids.” N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 733-740 (1988)

Donahue RR, Abbott RD, Bloom E, Reed DM, and Yano K. “Central obesity and coronary heart disease in men.” Lancet i: 820-823 (1987)

Duimetiere P, Eschwege E., Papoz G., Richard JL, Claude JR, and Rosselin G. “Relaltionship of plasma insulin to the incidence of myocardial infaction and coronary heart diease mortality in a middle-aged population.” Diabetologia 19: 205-210 (1980)

Ducimetiere P, Richard JL, and Cambrien I. “The pattern of subcutaneous fat distribution in middel-aged men and risk of coronary heart disease.” Int. J. Obesity 10: 229-240 (1986)

Eschwege E, Richard JL, Thibult N, Ducimetiere P, Warsnot JM, Claude JR, and Rosselin GE. “Coronary heart disease mortality in relation with diabetes, blood glucose, and plasma insulin levels.” Horm Metab. Res. Suppl. 15: 41-46 (1985)

Facchini FS, Hollenbeck CB, Jeppeson J, Chen Y-D, and Reaven GM. “Insulin resistance and cigarette smoking.” Lancet 339: 1128-1130 (1992)

Ferrannini E, Buzzigoli G, Bonadonna R, Giorico MA, Oleggini M, Grazideli L, Pedrinelli R, Brand L, and Beviacqua S. “Insulin resistance in essential hypertension.” N. Engl. J. Med. 317: 350-357 (1987)

Foster D. “Insulin resistance-a secret killer?” N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 733-734 (1989)

Frick HM, Elo O, Haapa K, Keinonem OP, Heinsalmi P, Halo P, Huttunen JK, Kaitaniemi P, Koskinen P, Manninen V, Maenapaa H, Malkonen M, Manttari M, Norola S, Pasternack A, Pikkarinen J, Romo M, Sjoblom P, and Mikkla EA. “Helsinki Heart Study: primary prevention trial with gemfibrozil in middle-aged men wih hyperlipidemia.” N. Engl. J. Med. 317: 1237-1245 (1987)

Farquhar JW, Frank A, Gross RC, and Reaven GM. “Glucose, insulin, and
triglyceride responses to high and low carbohydrate diets in man.” J. Clin. Invest. 45 1648-1656 (1966)

Frantz ID, Dawson EA, Ashman PL, Gatewood LC, Barsch GE, Kuba K, and
Brewer ER. “Test of effect of lipid lowering by diet on cardiovascular risk: the Minnesota coronary survey.” Arteriosclerosis 9: 129-135 (1989)

Garg A, Grudy SM, and Unger RH. “Comparison of effects of high and low
carbohydrate diets on plasma lipoproteins and insulin senisivity in patients with mild NIDDM.” Diabetes 41: 1278-1285 (1992)

Garg A, Bantle JP, Henry RR, Coulston AM, Griven KA, Raatz SK, Brinkley L, Chen I, Grundy SM, Huet BA, and Reaven GM. “Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.” JAMA 271: 1421-1428 (1994)

Gaziano JM, Burning JE, Breslow JL, Goldhaber SZ, Rosner B, van Denburgh M, Willett WC, and Hennekens CH. “Moderate alcohol intake, increased levels of high-density lipoproteins and its subfractions, and decreased risk of myocardial infarctions.” N. Engl. J. Med. 329: 1829-1834 (1993)

Gertler M, Leetma HE, Saluste E, Rosenberger JL, and Guthrie RG. “Ischemic heart disease, insulin, carbohydrate and lipid inter-relationship.” Circulation 46: 103-111 (1972)

Ginsberg H, Olefsky JM, Kimmerling G, Crapo P, and Reaven GM. “Induction of hypertriglyceridemia by a low-fat diet.” J. Clin Endocrinol. Metab. 42 729-735 (1976)

Grunze M and Deuticke B. “Changes of membrane permeability due to extensive cholesterol depletion in mammalian erthrocytes.” Biochim. Biophys Acta 356: 125-130 (1974)

Gruss JD. “Experience with PGE1 in patients with phlegmasia coerulea dolens and ergothism.” in Prostaglandin E1 in Atherosclerosis. Sinzinger H and Rogatti W. eds. Spinger-Verlag. New York, NY. pp. 97-105 (1986)

Hach W, Zanke BW, Sauerwein G, and Ozen Y. “Treatment of Stage IIb peripheral arterial occulsive disease with short-term intra-arterial infusion of prostaglandin E1 in Prostaglandin E1 in Atherosclerosis. Sinzinger H and Rogatti W. eds. Spinger-Verlag. New York, NY. pp. 66-74. (1986)

Hjermann I, Home I, Velve-Byre K, and LerenP. “Effect of diet and smoking intervention on incidence of coronary heart diesease” Lancet ii: 1303-1310 (1981)

Hollenbeck C and Reaven GM. “Variation of insulin sitmulated glucose uptake in healthy individuals with normal glucose tolerance.” J. Clin Endocrinol. Metab. 64: 1169-1173 (1987)

Hrboticky N, Tang B, Zimmer B., Lux I, and Weber PC. “Lovastatin increases arachidonic acid levels and stimulates thromboxane synthesis in human liver and monocytic cell lines.” J. Clin. Invest. 93: 195-203 (1994)

Jones PM and Persaud SJ. “Arachidonic acid as a second messenger in
glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells.” J. Endocrinol. 137: 7-14 (1993)

Kannel WB, Doyle JT, Ostfield AM, Jenkins CD, Kuller L, Podell RN, and Stemler J. Optimal resouces for primary prevention of atherosclerotic diseases. Circulation 70: 157A-205A (1984)

Kaplan N. “The deadly quartet: upper body obesity, glucose intolerance,
hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension.” Arch. Int. Med. 149: 1514-1520 (1989)

Knapp HR, Reilly IAG, Alessandrini P, and FitzGerald GA. “In vivo indexes of platelet and vascular function during fish-oil administration in patients with atherosclerosis.” N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 937-42 (1986)

Kromhout D, Bosscheter EB, and Coulander CL. “The inverse relationship between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease.” N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 1205-1209 (1985)

Krone W, Klass A, Nagele H., Behnke B, and Greten H. “Effects of prostaglandin E1 on low density lipoprotein receptor activity and cholesterol synthesis in freshly isolated human mononuclear leukocytes.” in Prostaglandin E1 in Atherosclerosis. Sinzinger H and Rogatti W. eds. Spinger-Verlag. New York, NY. pp. 32-38.(1986)

Krumholz HM, Seeman TE, Merrill SS, Mendes de Leon CF, Vaccarino V,
Silverman DI, Tsukahara R, Ostfield AM, and Berkman LF. “Lack of association between cholesterol and coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity and all-cause mortality in persons older than 70 years.” JAMA 272: 1335-1340 (1994)

Kuczmarshi RJ, Flegal KM, Campbell, SM, and Joshnson CL. “Increasing
revelance of overweight among U.S. adults.” JAMA 272: 205-211 (1994)

Lakshmanan MR, Nepokroeff CM, Ness GC, Dugan RE, and Porter JW.
“Stimulation by insulin of rat liver beta hydroxy methyl HMGCoA and cholesterol synthesizing activities”. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 50: 704-710 (1973)

Larsson B., Svarsudd K, Welin L, Wilhelmssen L, Bjorntorp P, and Tilbin G. “Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and death.” Br. Med. J. 288: 1401-1404 (1984)

Laws A, King AC, Haskell WL, and Reaven GM. “Relation of fasting plasma
insulin concentrations to high density lipoprotein cholesterol and trigylceride concentrations in man.” Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 11: 1636-1642 (1991)

Lewis DH, Davis JW, Archibald DG, Steinte WE, Smitherman TC, Doherty JE, Schnaper HW, LeWinter MM, Linares E., Pouget JM, Sabharwal SC, Chandler E, and DeMotis H. “Protective effects of aspirin against acute myocardial infarction and death in men with unstable angina.” N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 396-403 (1983)

MAAS Investigators. “Effect of simvastatin on coronary atheroma: the multicentre anti-atheroma study (MAAS).” Lancet 344: 633-638 (1994)

McCormick J and Skrabanek P. “Coronary heart disease is not preventable by population interventions.” Lancet ii: 839-841 (1988)

Modan M, Or J, Karasik A, Drory Y, Fuchs Z, Lusky A, and Cherit A.
“Hyperinsulinemia, sex, and risk of athersclerotic cardiovascular disease.” Circulation 84: 1165-1175 (1991)

Morgan WA, Paskin P, and Rosenstock J. “A comparison of fish oil or corn oil supplements in hyperlipidemic subjects with NIDDM.” Diabetes Care 18 83-86 (1995)

Morrow JD, Frei B, Longmire AW, Gaziano JM, Lynch SM, Shyr Y, Strauss WE, JA Oates, and Roberts LJ. “Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostanes) in smokers.” N Engl J Med 332: 1198-1203 (1995)

Medical Research Council Working Party. “MRC trial of treatment of mild hypertension.” Brit. Med. J. 291: 97-104 (1985)

Muldoon MF., Manrick SB, and Matthews KA. “Lowering cholesterol
concentrations and moralty: a quantitive review of primary prevention trials.” Br. Med. J. 301: 309-314 (1990)

Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group. “Mutiple risk factor intervention trial.” JAMA 248: 1465-1477 (1982) Nestler JE, Beer NA, Jakubowicz DJ, Colombo C, and Beer RM. “Effects of insulin reduction with benfluorex on serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and blood pressure in hypertensive middle-aged and elderly men.” J. ClinEndocrinol Metab 80 700-706 (1995)

Oates JA, FitzGerald GA, Branch RA, Jackson EK, Knapp HP, and Roberts LJ. “Clinical implications of prostaglandin and thromboxane A2 formation” N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 689-698 (1988)

Oates JA, FitzGerald GA, Branch RA, Jackson EK, Knapp HP, and Roberts LJ. “Clinical implications of prostaglandin and thromboxane A2 formation” N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 761-767 (1988)

Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Kirkeeide RL, Brand RJ, and Gould KL. “Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?” Lancet 336:129-133 (1990)

Parillo M, Rivellese AA, Ciardullo AV, Capaldo B, Giacco A, Genovese S, and Riccardi G. “A high-monounsaturated-fat/low carbohydrate diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.” Metab. 41: 1373-1378 (1992)

Pelikanova T, lKohout M, Base J, Steka Z, Dovar J, DAzdova L, and Valek J. “Effect of acute hyperinsulinemia on fatty acid composition of serum lipids in non-insulin dependent diabetics and healthy men.” Clinica Chim. Acta 203: 329-338 (1991)

Peris AN, SLothmann MS, Hoffman RG, Hennes MJ, Wilson CR, Gustafson AB, and Kissbah AH. “Adiposity, fat distribution and cardiovascular risk.” Ann. Int. Med. 110: 867-872 (1989)

Pyorala K, Savolainen E, Kaukula S, and Haapakowski J. “Plasma insulin as coronary heart disease risk factor.” Acad Med. Scand 701: 38-52 (1985)

Reaven GM. “Role of insulin resistance in human disease.” Diabetes 37: 1595-1607 (1989)

Reaven GM and Hoffman B. “Abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism may play a role in the etiology and clinical course of hypertension.” Trend in Pharm. Sci. 9: 78-79 (1988)

Reaven GM. “The role of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in coronary heart disease.” Metab. 41: 16-19 (1992)

Reaven GM. “Syndrome X: 6 years later.” J. Intern. Med. Suppl. 736 13-22 (1994)

Renaud S and de Lorgeril M. “Wine alcohol, platelets and the French paradox for coronary heart disease.” Lancet 339: 1523-1526 (1992)

Ross R. “The pathogensis of atherosclerosis.” N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 488-500 (1986)

Rodwell VW, Nordstrom JL, and Mitschelen. “Regulation of HMG-CoA reductase.”. Adv. Lipid Res. 14: 1-76 (1976)

Ruderman N and Haudenschild C. “Diabetes as an atherogenic factor.” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 26: 373-412 (1984)

Sacca L, Perez G., Pengo F., Pascucci I, and Conorelli M. “Reduction of
circulating insulin levels during the infusion of different prostaglandins in the rat.” Acta Endocrinol. 79: 266-274 (1975)

Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. “Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian simvastatin survivial study (4S).” Lancet 344: 1383-1389 (1994)

Schwartz LCJ, Valente AJ, Sprague EA, Kelley JL, Cayatte AJ, and Rozek MM. “Pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic lesion.” Diabetes Care 15: 1156-1167 (1992)

Sheu WH, Shieh SM, Shen DD, Fuh MM, Jeng CY, Chen YD, and Reaven GM. “Effect of pravastatin treatment on glucose, insulin, and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with hypercholesterolemia.” Am. Heart J. 127 331-336 (1994)

Silver MJ, Hock W, Kocsis JJ, Ingerman CM, and Smith JB. “Arachidonic acid caudes sudden death in rabbits.” Science 183: 1085-1087 (1974)

Sinzinger H. “Inhibition of mitotic and proliferative activity of smooth muscle cell by prostaglandin E1.” in Prostaglandin E1 in Atherosclerosis. Sinzinger H and Rogatti W. (eds) pp. 37-48. Spinger-Verlag. New York, NY. (1986)

Smith DL, Willis AL, Nguyen N, Conner D, Zahedi S., and Fulks J. “Eskimo plasma constituents, dihomo gamma linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit the release of atherogenic mitogens.” Lipids 24: 70-75 (1989)

Stein PP and Black HR. “Drug treatment of hypertension in patients with diabetes amellitus.” Diabetes Care 14: 425-448 (1991)

Stern MP and Haffner SM. “Bodyfat distribution and hyperinsulinemia as risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease” Arteriosclerosis 6: 123-130 (1986)

Sterring Committe of Physicians Health Study Research Group. “Preliminary Report: finds for aspirin component of the ongoing physician healt study.” N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 262-264 (1988)

Stolar M. “Atherosclerosis in diabetes: the role of hyperinsulinemia.” Metabol. 37: 1-9 (1988)

Stout R. “Insulin and atheroma-an update.” Lancet i: 1077-1079 (1987)

Stout R. “The relationship of abnormal circulating insulin levels to atherosclerosis.” Atherosclerosis 27: 1-13 (1977)

Waters D, Higginson L, Gladstone P, Kimball B, LeMay M, Boccuzzi SJ,
Lesperance J, and CCAILT Study Group. “Effects of monotherapy with HMG CoA reductase inhibitor on progression of atherosclerosis as assessed by serial arteriography: the Canadian coronary atherosclerosis intervention trial (CCAIT)”. Circulation 89: 959-968 (1994)

Welborn TA and Wearne K. “Coronary heart disesae incidience and cardiovascular mortality in Brusselton with reference to glucose and insulin concentrations.” Diabetes Care 2: 154-160 (1979)

Wilhelmsen L, Berglund G and Elmfeldt D. “The multifactoral primary prevention trial in Goteburg, Sweden.” Eur. Heart J. 7: 279-288 (1981)

WHO European Collaborative Group. “European collaborative trial of multifactoral prevention of coronary heart disease: final report on 6 year results>” Lancet i:869-872 (1986)

WHO European Collaborative Group. “Multifactoral trial in the prevention of coronary heart disease: 3. incidence and mortality results.” Eur. Heart J. 4: 141-147 (1983)

Zavaroni I, Bonora E, Pagliara M, Dall’Aglio E, Luchetti L, Buonnanno G, Bonati PA, Bergonzani M, Gnudi L, Passeri M, and Reaven G. “Risk factors for coronary artery diseae in healthy persons with hyperinsulinemia and normal glucose tolerance.” N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 702-706 (1989)

Zavroni I, Bonini L, Fantuzzi M, Dall’Aglio E, Passeri M, and Reaven GM.
“Hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and syndrome X.” J. Intern. Med. 235 51-56 (1994)

Zimmet P and Baba S. “Central obesity, glucose intolerance and other
cardiovascular risk factors.” Diabetes Res. Clin Proc. 16: S167-S171 (1990)

Chapter 14–Cancer and the Zone
Books
Kushi M and Kushi A. “Macrobiotic Diet”.Japan Publications. New York, NY. (1985)

Ninnemann JL. “Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and the Immune Response.” Cambridge Press. New York, NY. (1988)

Quillin P. “Beating Cancer with Nutrition”. Nutrition Times Press. Tulsa, OK (1994)

Tahler-Dao H, Crastes de Paulet A, and Paoletti R (eds). “Icosanoids and Cancer”. Raven Press. New York 1984)

Weindruch R and Walford RL. “The Relationship of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction”. C.C. Thomas. Springfield, IL (1988)

Articles
Bailar JC and Smith EM. “Progress against cancer?”. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 1226-1232 (1986)

Bankhurst AD. “Modulation of human natural killer cell activity by prostaglandins.” J. Clin. Lab. Immunology 7: 85-91 (1982)

Braverman AS. “Medical Oncology in the 1990s.” Lancet 337: 901-902 (1991)

Bruning PF, Bonfrer MG, van Noord PAH, Hart AAM, de Jong-Bakken M, and Nooijen WJ. “Insulin resistance and breast cancer.” Int. J. Cancer 52: 511-516 (1992)

Carter JP, Saxe GP, Newbold V, Peres CE, Campeau RJ, and Bernal-Green L. “Hypothesis: dietary mangement may improve survival from nutritionally linked cancers based on analysis of representative cases.” J. Am. College of Nutr. 12: 209-226 (1993)

Chapkin RS, Somers SD, and Erickson KL. “Dietary manipulation of macrophage phospholipid classes.” Lipids 23: 766-770 (1988)

Enders, S, Ghorbani R, Kelly VE, Georgilis K, Lonneman G, van der Meer JWM, Cannon JG, Rogers TS, Klempner MS, Weber PC, Schaefer EJ, Wolff SM, and Dinarello CA. “The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells.” N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 265-271 (1989)

Folkman J. “What is the evidence that tumors are angiogenesis dependent?” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 82: 4-6 (1990)

Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, and Wilett WC. “Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men.” Cancer Res. 54: 2390-2397 (1994)

Giovannucci E, Rimm Eb, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Chute CC, and Willett WC. “A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer.” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 85: 1571-1579 (1993)

Gordon D, Bray MA, and Morley J. “Control of hymphokine secretion by
prostaglandins.” Nature 262: 401-402 (1976)

Grant JP. “Proper use and recognized role of TPN in the cancer patient.” Nutrition 6: 6S-7S (1990)

Honn KV, Nelson KK, Renaud C, Bazaz R, Diglio CA, and Timar J. “Fatty acid modulation of tumor cell adhension to microvessel endothelium and experimental metasis.” Prostaglandins 44: 413-429 (1992)

Kaye SA, Folsom AR, Soler JT, Prineas RJ, and Patten JD. “Association of body mass and fat distribution in sex hormone concentrations in post menopausal women” Int. J. Epidemiol. 20: 151-156 (1991)

Leung KH and Koren HS. “Regulation of human natural killing: protective effect of interferon on NK cells and suppression by PGE2.” J. Immunol. 129: 1742-1747 (1982)

Liu B, Marnett LJ, Chaudhary A, Ji C, Blair IA, Johnson CR, Diglio CA, and Honn KV. “Biosynthesis of 12-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid by B16 amelanotic melanoma cells is a determinant of their metastatic potential.” Lab. Invest. 70: 314-323 (1994)

Meydani SN. “Modulation of cytokine production by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 200: 189-193 (1992)

Murota S, Kanayasu T, Nakano-Hayashi J, and Morita I. “Involvement of
eicosanoids in angiogensis” Adv. Prostaglandins, Thromoboxanes and Leukotriene Res. 21: 623-625 (1990)

Nasser BA, Huang YS, Manku MS, Das UN, Morse N, and Horrobin DF. “The influence of dietary manipulaltion with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on liver and plasma phospholipids in rat.” Lipids 21: 652-656 (1986)

Okusawa S, Gelfand JA, Ikejima T, Connolly RJ, and Dinarello CA. “Interleukin 1 induces a shock-like state in rabbits. Synergism with tumor necrosis factor and the effect of cycloooxygenase inhibition.” J. Clin. Invest. 82: 1162-1172 (1988)

Rappaport RS and Dodge GR. “Prostglandin E inhibits the production of human interleukin 2.” J. Exp. Med. 155: 943-948 (1982)

Schapira DV, Kumar NB, Lyman GH, and Cox CE. “Abdominal obesity and breast cancer risk.” Ann. Int. Med. 112: 182-186 (1990)

Schartzken A, Greewold P, Byar DP, and Clifford CK. “The dietary fat-breast cancer hypothesis is alive.” JAMA 261: 3284-3287 (1989)

Seller TA, Kushi L, Potter JD, Kaye SA, Nelson CL, McGovern PG, and Folsom AR. “Effect of family history, body fat distribution, and reproductive factors on the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.” N. Eng. J. Med. 326: 1323-1329 (1992)

Serhan CN. “Lipoxin biosynthesis and its impact in inflammatory and vascular events.” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1212: 1-25 (1994)

Temple NJ and Burkitt DP. “The war on cancer-failure of therapy and research.” J. Royal Soc. Med. 84: 95-98 (1991)

Weindruch R. “Effect of caloric restriction on age-associated cancers.” Exp. Gerontol. 27: 575-581 (1992)

Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Manson JE, Spegelman D, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, and Speizer FE. “Dietary fat and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer.” JAMA 268: 2037-2044 (1992)

Chapter 15–Chronic Diseases and the Zone
Books
Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, and Taylor P. (eds). “The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th Edition”. Pergamon Press. New York, NY (1990)

Horrobin DF (ed). “Omega 6 Essential Fatty Acids”. Wiley-Liss. New York, NY (1990)

Jefferies WM. “Safe Uses of Cortisone”. C.C. Thomas. Springfield, IL (1981)

Root-Bernstein R. “Rethinking AIDS”. Free Press. New York, NY (1993)

Schlemier RP, Claman HN, and Oronsky A (eds.). Anti-inflammatory Steroid Action.” Academic Press. San Diego, CA (1989)

Ruzicka T (ed). Eicosanoids and the Skin. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. (1990)

Articles
Abdulla YH, and Hamadah K. “Effect of ADP on PGE formation in blood
platelets from patients with depression, mania, and schizophrenia.” Br. J. Psychiarty 127: 591-595 (1975)

Aberg J. “Prostaglandin production in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis.” J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 4: 226-250 (1990)

Ascher MS and Sheppard HW. “AIDS as immune system activation.” J. Acquired Immune Deficency Syndromes 3: 177-191 (1990)

Bamford JTM, Gibson RW, and Reiner CM. “Atopic eczema unresponsive to evening primrose oil.” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 13: 959-965 (1985)

Behan PO, Behan WMH, and Horrobin DF. “Effect of high doses of essential fatty acids on postviral fatigue syndrome.” Acta Neurol Scand. 82: 209-216 (1990)

Belch JJF, Ansell D, M adhok R, O’Dowd A, and Sturock RD. “Effects of altering dietary essential fatty acids with prostaglandin E1 precursors cis-linoleic acid and gamma linolenic acid.” Scand. J. Rhumatol. 12 85-89 (1988)

Belch JJF, Ansell D, Madhok R, O’Dowd A, and Sturrock RD. “Effects of altering dietary essential fatty acids on requirements for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.” Ann. Rheum. Disease 47: 96-104 (1988)

Bjorneboe A, Soyland E, Bjorneboe GEA, Rajha G, and Drevon G. “Effect of
dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid in treatmetn of atopic dermatitis.” Br. J. Dermatol. 117: 463-469 (1987)

Blackburn M. “Uses of Efamol for depression and hyperactivity in children.” in Omgea 6 Essential Fatty Acids. Horrobin DF (ed). Wiley-Liss. New York, NY pp. 345-350 (1990)

Bittiner BS, Cartwright I, Tucker WFG, and Bleehen SS. “A double-blind,
randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in psoriasis.” Lancet i: 378-380 (1988)

Brush MG, Watson, Horrobin DF, and Manku MS. “Abnormal essential fatty acid levels in plasma of women with premenstrual syndrome.” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 150: 363-366 (1984)

Cerin A, Collins A, Landgren BM, and Eneroth P. “Hormonal and biochemical profiles of premenstrual syndrome: treatment with essential fatty acids.” Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 72: 337-343 (1993)

Cupps TR and Fauci AS. “Corticosteroid-mediated immunoregulation in man.” Immunol. Rev. 65: 133-155 (1982)

Dupont E, Schandene L, Devos R, Lambermont M, and Wybran J. “Depletion of lymphocytes with membrane markers of helper phenotype: a feature of acute and chronic drug-induced immunosuppression.” Clin. Exp. Immunol. 51: 345-350 (1983)

Earle CM, Keogh EJ, Wisniewski ZS, Tulloch AGS, Lord DJ, Watters GR, and Ghatthaar C. “Prostaglandin E1 therapy for impotence, comparison with papaverine.” J. Urology 143: 57-59 (1990)

Fauci AS and Dale DC. “The effect of in vivo hydrocortisone on subpopulation of human lymphocytes.” J. Clin. Invest. 53: 240-246 (1974)

French JM. “MaxEPA in multiple sclerosis.” Brit J. Clin. Med. 38: 117-121 (1984)

Giron DJ. “Inhibition of viral replication in cell cultures treated with prostaglandin E1.” Proc. Soc. Exp. Bio. Med. 170: 25-28 (1982)

Glen EMT, MacDonald LEF, Glen AIM, and Mac Kenszie J. “Possible
pharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related CNS impairment.” in Pharmacological Treatments for Alcoholism. Edwards G and Littleton J (eds.). Croom Helms. London, England. pp311-350 (1984)

Godschalk M, Chen J, Katz PG, and Mulligan T. “Prostaglandin E1 as treatment for rectile failure in elderly men.” J. Am. Geriatr Soc. 42: 1263-1265 (1994)

Haynes BF and Fauci AS. “The differential effects of in vivo hydrocortisone on kinetics of subpopulations of human peripheral blood thymus-derived lymphocytes.” J. Clin. Invest. 61: 703 707 (1978)

Hedqvist P. “Effects of prostaglandins on autonomic neurotransmission.” in Prostaglandins: Physiological, pharmcological and pathological aspects. Karin SSM ed. MLTP Press. Lancaster, England. pp 37-62 (1976)

Horrobin DF, Durand LG, and Manku MS. “Prostaglandin E1 modifies nerve conduction and interferes with local anaesthetic action.” Prostaglandins 14: 103-112 (1977)

Horton EW. “Actions of prostaglandin E1, E2, and E3 on central nervous system.” Brit. J. Pharmacol. 22: 189-192 (1964)

Kremer JM, Michalek AV, Lininger L, Huyck C, Bigarroette J, Timchalk MA, Rynes RI, Zieminshi J, and Bartholomew LE. “Effects of manipulation of dietary fatty acids on clinical manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis.” Lancet i: 184-187 (1985)

Kremer JM, Jubiz W, and Michaslek A Rynes RI, Bartholomew LE, Biagouette J, Timchalk M, Beeler D, and Linnger L. “Fish-oil supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis.” Ann. Int. Med. 106: 497-503 (1987)

Kunkel SL, Fantone JC, Ward PA, and Zurier RB. “Modualtion of inflammatory reaction by prostaglandins.” Prog. Lipid Res. 20: 633-640 (1982)

Kunkel SL, Thrall SB, Kunkel RG, McCormick JR, Ward PA, and Zurier RB. “Suppression of immune complex vasculitis in rats by prostaglandin.” J. Clin Invest. 64: 1525-1529 (1979)

Kuno S, Ueno R, Hayaishi O, Nakashima H, Harada S, and Yamamoto N.
“Prostaglandin E2, a seminal constuent, facilitates the replication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus in vitro.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 3487-3490 (1986)

Lee TH, Hoover RL, Williams JD, Sperling RI, Ravalese J, Spur BW, Robinson DR, Corey EJ, Lewis RA, and Austen KF. “Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic acid and docasahexaenoic acid acid on in vitro neurophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neurophil function.” N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 1217-1224 (1985)

Margaro M, Altomonte L, Zoli A, Mirone L, DeSole D, DiMario G, Lippa S. and Oradei A. “Influence of diet with different lipid composition on neutrophil chemiluminescence and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.”Ann. Rheum. Dis. 47: 793-796 (1988)

Manku MS, Oka M, and Horrobin DF. “Differential regulation of the formation of prostaglandins and related substances from arachidonic acid and dihomo gamma linolenic acid: effects of ethanol.” Prostaglandins Med. 3: 119-128 (1979)

Nervi AM, Peluffo RO, and Brenner RR. “Effect of ethanol adminstration in fatty desaturation.” Lipids 15: 263-268 (1980)

Neu I, Mallinger J, Wildfeuer A, and Mehler L. “Leukotrienes in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients.” Acta Neurol. Scand. 86: 586-587 (1992)

Ochermann PA, Bachrock I, Glans S, and Rqassner S. “Evening primrose oil as a treatment of the premenstrual syndrome.” Rec. Adv. Clin. Nutr. 2: 404-405 (1986)

Pluda JM, Yarchoan R, Jaffe ES, Feuerstein IM, Solomon D, Steinber SM, KM Wyvill, Raubitschi A, Katz D, and Broder S. “Development of non-hodgkin lymphoma in a chort of patients with severe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on long-term antiretroviral therpy.” Ann. Int. Med. 113: 276-282 (1990)

Prickett JD, Robinson DR, and Steinberg AD. “Dietary enrichment with
polyunsaturated acid eicosapentaenoic acid prevents proteinuria and prolongs survival in NZBxNZW F1 mice.” J. Clin. Invest. 68: 556-559 (1981)

Pulse TL and Uhlig E. “A significant improvement in a clinical pilot study utilizing nutritional supplements, essential fatty acids, and stabilized aloe vera juice in 29 HIV seropositive ARC and AIDS patients.” J. Adv. Med. 3: 209-230 (1990)

Puolakka J, Makarainen L, Viinikka L, and Ylikorkala O. ” Biochemical and clinical effects of treating the premenstrual syndrom with prostaglandin synthesis precursors.” J. Reprod. Med. 30: 149-153 (1985)

Rotrosen J, Mandio D., Segarnick D, Traficante LJ, and Gershon S. “Ethanol and prostaglandin E1: biochemical and behaviorabl interactions.” Life Sci. 26: 1867-1876 (1980)

Segarnick DJ, Ryer H, and Rotrosen J. “Precursor and pool-dependent differential effects of ethanol on human platelets prostanoid synthesis.” Biochem. Pharmacol. 34: 1343-146 (1985)

Schroeder HC. “Avarol restores the altered prostaglandin and leukotriene
metabolism in monocytes infected with HIV Type I.” Virus Res. 21: 213-223 (1991)

Swank RL and Dugan BB. “Effect of low saturated fat diet in early and late cases of multiple sclerosis.” Lancet 336: 37-39 (1990)

Uda R, Horiguchi S, Ito S, Hyodo M, and Hayaishi O. “Nociceptive effects
induced by intrathecal adminstration of prostaglandin D2, E2, and F2 alpha in conscious mice.” Brain Res. J. 10: 26-32 (1990)

Volberding PA, Lagakos SW, Grimes JM, Stein DS, Balfour HH, Reichman RC, Bartlett JA, Hirsch MS, Phair AP, Mitsuyasu RT, Fischi MA, and Soeiro R. “The duration of zidovudine benefit in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection.” JAMA 272: 437-442 (1994)

Williams LL, Doody DM, and Horrocks LA. “Serum fatty acid proportions are altered during the year following acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.” Lipids 23: 981-988 (1988)

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Chapter 16-The Zone and Life Extension

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WHO World Health Report (2000)

Chapter 1. The Real Epidemic Behind the Obesity Crisis

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Chapter 2. The Perfect Nutritional Storm

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Chapter 3. How Inflammation Helps Us—and Hurts Us?

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Chapter 4. Why Getting Fat Probably May Not Be Your Fault

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Chapter 5. Why Good Fat Can Be Protective

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Chapter 6. Malignant Fat

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Pompeia C, Lima T, and Curi R. “Arachidonic acid cytotoxicity: can arachidonic acid be a physiological mediator of cell death?” Cell Biochem Funct 21: 97-104 (2003)

Raz I, Edor R, Cernea S, and Shafrir E. “Diabetes: insulin resistance and derangements in lipid metabolism. Cure through intervention in fat transport and storage.” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 21: 3-14 (2005)

Rzehak P, Meisinger C, Woelke G, Brasche S, Strube G, and Heinrich J. “Weight change, weight cycling and mortality in the ERFORT Male Cohort Study.” Eur J Epidemiol 22: 665-673 (2007)

Savva SC, Chadjigeorgiou C, Hatzis C, Kyriakakis M, Tsimbinos G; Tornaritis M, and Kafatos A. “Association of adipose tissue arachidonic acid content with BMI and overweight status in children from Cyprus and Crete.” Br J Nutr 91: 643-649 (2004)

Shin MJ, Hyun YJ, Kim OY, Kim JY, Jang Y, and Lee JH. “Weight loss effect on inflammation and LDL oxidation in metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals: low inflammation and LDL oxidation in MHO women.” Int J Obesity 30:1529-1534 (2006)

Sinha D, Addya S, Murer E, and Boden G. “15-Deoxy-delta(12,14) prostaglandin J2: a putative endogenous promoter of adipogenesis suppresses the ob gene.” Metabolism 48: 786-791 (1999)

Strissel KJ, Stancheva Z, Miyoshi H, Perfield JW, De Furia J, Jick Z, Greenberg AS, and Obin MS. “Adipocyte death, adipose tissue remodeling, and obesity complications.” Diabetes 56: 2910-2918 (2007)

Taubes G. Good Calories, Bad Calories. Alfred Knopf. New York, NY (2007)

Todoric J, Löffler M, Huber J, Bilban M, Reimers M, Kadl A, Zeyda M, Waldhäusl W, and Stulnig TM. “Adipose tissue inflammation induced by high-fat diet in obese diabetic mice is prevented by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Diabetologia 49: 2109-2119 (2006)

Unger RH and Zhou YT. “Lipotoxicity of beta-cells in obesity and in other causes of fatty acid spillover.” Diabetes 50:S118-121 (2001)

Unger RH. “Longevity, lipotoxicity and leptin: the adipocyte defense against feasting and famine.” Biochimie 87: 57-64 (2005)

Unger RH. “Weapons of lean body mass destruction: the role of ectopic lipids in the metabolic syndrome.” Endocrinology 144: 5159-5165 (2003)

Williams ES, Baylin A, and Campos H. “Adipose tissue arachidonic acid and the metabolic syndrome in Costa Rican adults.” Clin Nutr 26: 474-482 (2007)

Chapter 7. Do You Have Silent Inflammation?

Boizel R, Behhamou PY, Lardy B, Laporte F, Foulon T, and Halimi S. “Ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol is an indicator of LDL particle size in patients with type 2 diabetes and normal HDL cholesterol levels.” Diabetes Care 23: 1679-1685 (2000)

Campbell B, Badrick T, Flatman R, and Kanowshi D. “Limited clinical ultility of high-senistivity plasma C-reactive protein assays.” Ann Clin Biochem39: 85-88 (2002)

Campbell B, Flatman R, Badrick T, and Kanowshi D. “Problems with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.” Clin Chem 49: 201 (2003)

Crijns SA, Frummer RJ, Wichers M, Lousberg R, Clis S, and Honig A. “Altered omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status in depressed post-myocardial infarction patients.” Acta Psychiart Scand 115: 35-40 (2007)

Danesh J, Wheeler JG, Hirschfield GM, Eiriksdottir G, Remley A, Lowe GD, Pepys MB, and Gudnason J. “C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease.” N Engl J Med 350: 1387-1397 (2004)

Harris JI, Hibbeln JR, Mackey RH, and Muldoon MF. “Statin treatment alters serum n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in hypercholesterolemic patients.” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 71: 263-269 (2004)

Iso H, Sato S, Falsm AR, Shimamoto T, terao A, Munger RG, Kitamure A, Konishi M, Iida M, and Komachi Y. “Serum fatty acids and fish intake in rural Japanese, urban Japanese, Japanese American and Caucasian American men.” Int J Epidemiol 18: 374-381 (1989)

Jeppesen J, Hein HO, Suadicani P, and Gyntelberg F. “Low triglycerides-high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of ischemic heart disease.” Arch Intern Med 161: 361-366 (2001)

Kagawa Y, Nishizawa M, Suzuki M, Miyatake T, Hamamoto T, Goto K, Motonaga E, Izumikawa H, Hirata H, and Ebihara A. “Eicosapolyenoic acid of serum lipids of Japanese islanders with low incidence of cardiovascular diseases.” J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 28: 441-453 (1982)

Lamarche B, Tchernot A, Mauriege P, Cantin B, Gagenais GR, Lupien PJ, and Despres J-P. “Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density particle size as risk factors for ischemic heart disease.” JAMA 279: 1965-1961 (1998)

McLaughlin T, Abbasi F, Cheal K, Chu J, Lamendola C, and Reaven G. “Use of metabolic markers to identify overweight individuals who are insulin resistant.” Ann Intern Med 139: 802-809 (2003)

McLaughlin T, Reaven G, Abbasi F, Lamendola C, Saad M, Waters D, Simon J, and Krauss RM. “Is there a simple way to identify insulin-resistant individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease?” Am J Cardiol 96: 399-404 (2005)

Nesto RW. “Beyond low-density lipoprotein: addressing the atherogenic lipid triad in type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome.” Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 5: 379-387 (2005)

Pedersen HS, Muvad G, Sedelin KN, Malcom GT, and Boudreau DA. “N-3 fatty acids as a risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke.” Lancet 353: 812-813 (1999)

Sandau CD, Ayotte P, Dewailly E, Duffe J, and Norstrom RJ. “Analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in whole blood from Canadian Inuit.” Environ Health Perspect 108: 611-616 (2000)

Sears, B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Sears B. The OmegaRx Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2002)

Sears B. The Anti-Inflammation Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2005)

Tall AR. “C-reactive protein reassessed.” N Engl J Med 350: 1450-1452 (2004)

Yamada T, Strong JP, Ishii T, Ueno T, Koyama M, Wagayama H, Shimizu A, Sakai T, Malcom GT, and Guzman MA. “Atherosclerosis and omega-3 fatty acids in the populations of a fishing village and a farming village in Japan.” Atherosclerosis 153: 469-481 (2000)

Yeni-Komshian H, Caratoni M, Abbasi F, and Reaven GM. “Relationship between several surrogate estimates of insulin resistance and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 490 healthy nondiabetic volunteers.” Diabetes Care 23: 171-175 (2000)

Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, Matsuzawa Y, Saito Y, Ishikawa Y, Oikawa S, Sasaki J, Hishida H, Itakura H, Kita T, Kitabatake A, Nakaya N, Sakata T, Shimada K, and Shirato K. “Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomized open-label, blinded endpoint analysis.” Lancet 369: 1090-1098 (2007)

Chapter 8: The Zone Diet: Your Primary Defense in Fighting Toxic Fat

Agus MS, Swain JF, Larson CL, Eckert EA, and Ludwig DS. “Dietary composition and physiologic adaptations to energy restriction.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 901-907 (2000)

Ambring A, Johansson M, Axelsen M, Gan L, Strandvik B, and Friberg P. “Mediterranean-inspired diet lowers the ratio of serum phospholipids n-6 to n-3 fatty acids, the number of leukocytes and platelets, and vascular endothelial growth factor in healthy subjects.” Am J Clin Nutr 83: 575-581 (2006)

Bell SJ and Sears B. “Low glycemic load diets: impact on obesity and chronic diseases.” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43: 357-377 (2003)

Bell SJ and Sears B. “A proposal for a new national diet: a low glycemic load diet with a unique macronutrient composition.” Metabol Syndrome and Related Disorders 1: 199-208 (2003)

Brenner RR. “Nutrition and hormonal factors influencing desaturation of essential fatty acids.” Prog Lipid Res 20: 41-48 (1982)

Brenner RR. “Hormonal modulation of delta 6 and delta 5 desaturases: case of diabetes.” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 68: 151-162 (2003)

Collier G and Johnson DR. “The paradox of satiation.” Physiology and Behavior 82: 149-153 (2004)

Dumesnil JG, Turgeon J, Tremblay A, Poirier P, Gilbert M, Gagnon L, St-Pierre S, Garneau C, Lemieux I, Pascot A, Bergeron J, and Despres JP. “Effect of a low-glycaemic index–low-fat–high protein diet on the atherogenic metabolic risk profile of abdominally obese men.” Br J Nutr 86: 557-568 (2001)

Eaton SB and Konner MJ. “Paleolithic nutrition.” N Engl J Med 312:283-289 (1985)

Eaton B, Shostak M, and Konner M. The Paleolithic Prescription. Harper and Row, New York, NY. (1988)

Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, Lovesky MM, and Ludwig DS “Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial.” JAMA 297: 2092-2102 (2007)

el Boustani S, Gausse JE, descomps B, Monnier L, Mendy F, and Crastes de Paulet A. “Direct in vivo characterization of the delta-5 desaturase activity in humans by deuterium labeling: effect of insulin.” Metab 38: 315-3321 (1989)

Fontana L, Meyer TE, Klein S, and Holloszy JO. “Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:6659-6663 (2004)

Fontani G, Corradeschi F, Felici A, Alfatti F, Bugarini R, Fiaschi AI, Cerretani D, Montorfano G, Rizzo AM, and Berra B. “Blood profiles, body fat and mood state in healthy subjects on different diets supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Eur J Clin Invest 35: 499-507 (2005)

Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, McGuckin BG, Brill C, Mohammed BS, Szapary PO, Rader DJ, Edman JS, and Klein S. “A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity.” N Engl J Med 22: 2082-2090 (2003)

Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Saeed A, Jordan K, and Hoover H. “An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes.” Am J Clin Nutr 78: 734-741 (2003)

Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM , Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin JM , Bowling AC , Newman HC, Jenkins AL, and Goff DV. “Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.” Am J Clin Nutr 34: 362-366 (1981)

Johnston CS, Day CS, and Swan PD. “Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy, young women.” J Am Coll Nutr 21: 55-61 (2002)

Johnston CS, Tjonn SL, and Swan PD. “High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults.” J Nutr 134: 586-591 (2004)

Johnston CS, Tjonn SL, Swan PD, White A, Hutchins H, and Sears B. “Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets.” Am J Clin Nutr 83: 1055-1061 (2006)

Joslin Diabetes Research Center Dietary Guidelines. www.joslin.org/Files/Nutrition_Guideline_Graded.pdf

Layman DK, Shiue H, Sather C, Erickson DJ, and Baum J. “Increased dietary protein modifies glucose and insulin homeostasis in adult women during weight loss.” J Nutr 133: 405-410 (2003)

Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, and Christou DD. “A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women.” J Nutr 133: 411-417 (2003)

Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Holmes MD, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, and Willett WC. “Dietary glycemic load assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma triacylglycerols in postmenopausal women.” Am J Clin Nutr 73: 560-566 (2001)

Liu S, Manson JE, Buring JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, and Ridker PM. “Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women.” Am J Clin Nutr 75: 492-498 (2002)
Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L, Hennekens CH, and Manson JE. “A prospective study of dietary glycemic load , carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women.” Am J Clin Nutr 71: 1455-1461 (2002)
Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, Roberts SB, Agus MS, Swain JF, Larson CL, and Eckert EA. “Dietary High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity.” Pediatrics 103: E26 (1999)

Markovic TP, Jenkins AB, Campbell LV, Furler SM, Kraegen EW, and Chisholm DJ. “The determinants of glycemic responses to diet restriction and weight loss in obesity and NIDDM.” Diabetes Care 21: 687-694 (1998)
Markovic TP, Campbell LV, Balasubramanian S, Jenkins AB, Fleury AC, Simons LA, and Chisholm DJ. “Beneficial effect on average lipid levels from energy restriction and fat loss in obese individuals with or without type 2 diabetes.” Diabetes Care 21: 695-700 (1998)

McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Ascherio A, Variyam JN, Spegelman D, Stampfer MJ, and Willett WC. “Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the risk of major chronic disease in men.” Am J Clin Nutr 72: 1223-1231 (2000)

McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Rosner BA, Hu FB, Hunter DJ, Variyam JN, Colditz GA, and Willett WC. “Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in women.” Am J Clin Nutr 72: 1214-22 (2000)

Mitrou PN, Kipnis V, Thiebaut AC, Reedy J, Subar AF, Wirfalt E, Flood A, Mouw T, Hollenbeck AR, Leitzmann MF, and Schatzkin A. “Mediterranean dietary pattern and prediction of all-cause mortality in a US population: results from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.” Arch Intern Med 167: 2461-2468 (2007)

Murphy KG and Bloom SR. “Gut hormones and the regulation of energy homeostasis.” Nature 444: 854-859 (2006)

Naslund E and Hellstrom PM. “Appetite signaling: from gut peptides and enteric nerves to brain.” Physiol Behav 92: 256-262 (2007)

Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC, Saeed A, Jordan K, and Hoover H. “The metabolic response of subjects with type 2 diabetes to a high-protein, weight-maintenance diet.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003 88: 3577-3583 (2003)

Osei-Hyiaman D, Harvey-White J, Batkai S, and Kunos G. “The role of the endocannabinoid system in the control of energy homeostasis.” Int J Obes 30: S33-38 (2006)

Pagotto U and Pasquali R. “Fighting obesity and associated risk factors by antagonizing cannabinoid type 1 receptors.” Lancet 365: 1363-1364 (2005)

Pagotto U, Marsicano G, Cota D, Lutz B, and Pasquali R. “The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance.” Endocrine Rev 27: 73-100 (2006)

Pelikonova T, Kohout M, Base J, Stefka Z, Kovar L, Kerdova L,and Valek J. “Effect of acute hyperinsulinemia on fatty acid composition of serum lipid in non-insulin dependent diabetics and healthy men.” Clin Chem Acta 203: 329-337 (1991)

Pereira MA, Swain J, Goldfine AB, Rifai N, and Ludwig DS. “Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss.” JAMA 292: 2482-2490 (2004)

Pittas AG, Roberts SB, Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Saltzman E, Golden J, Stark PC, and Greenberg AS. “The effects of the dietary glycemic load on type 2 diabetes risk factors during weight loss.” Obesity 14: 2200-2209 (2006)

Pittas AG, Das SK, Hajduk CL, Golden J, Saltzman E, Stark PC, Greenberg AS, and Roberts SB. “A low-glycemic load diet facilitates greater weight loss in overweight adults with high insulin secretion but not in overweight adults with low insulin secretion in the CALERIE Trial.” Diabetes Care 28: 2939-2941 (2005)

Sears B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. Mastering the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears, B. Zone Perfect Meals. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Sears B, and Sears L. Zone Meals in Seconds. Regan Books. New York, NY (2001)

Sears B. The OmegaRx Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2002)

Sears B. The Anti-Inflammation Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2005)

Sears B and Bell SJ. “The Zone Diet: an anti-inflammatory, low glycemic-load diet.” Metabolic syndrome and Related Disorders 2: 24-38 (2004)

Silver MJ, Hoch W, Kocsis JJ, Ingerman CM, and Smith JB. “Arachidonic acid causes sudden death in rabbits.” Science 183: 1085-1087 (1974)

Skov AR, Toubro S, Ronn B, Holm L, and Astrup A. “Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity.” Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23: 528-536 (1999)

Unger RH. “Glucagon and the insulin-glucagon ratio in diabetes and other catabolic illnesses.” Diabetes 20 834-838 (1971)

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Wolfe BM and Piche LA. “Replacement of carbohydrate by protein in a conventional-fat diet reduces cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in healthy normolipidemic subjects.” Clin Invest Med 22: 140-1488 (1999)

Whitten P. “Stanford’s Secret Weapon.” Swimming World (1993)

Chapter 9: Super Fish Oil: Your Final Defense in Fighting Toxic Fat

Arisawa K, Matsummura T, Tohyama c, Saito H, Satoh H, Hagai M, Morita M, and Suzuki T. “Fish intake, plasma omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polychlorinated debenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls in the blood of the Japanese population.” Int Arch Occup Environ Health 76: 205-215 (2003)

Chavali SR and Forse RA. “Decreased production of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 associated with inhibition of delta-5 desaturation of omega-6 fatty acids in mice fed safflower oil diets supplemented with sesamol.” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 61: 347-352 (1999)

Iso H, Sato S, Falsm AR, Shimamoto T, terao A, Munger RG, Kitamure A, Konishi M, Iida M, and Komachi Y. “Serum fatty acids and fish intake in rual Japanese, urban Japanese, Japanese American and Caucasian American men.” Int J Epidemiol 18: 374-381 (1989)

Jeng KCG and Hou RCW. “Sesamin and sesamolin: Nature’s therapeutic lignans.” Cur Enzyme Inhibition 1: 11-20 (2005)

Kagawa Y, Nishizawa M, Suzuki M, Miyatake T, Hamamoto T, Goto K, Motonaga E, Izumikawa H, Hirata H, and Ebihara A. “Eicosapolyenoic acid of serum lipids of Japanese islanders with low incidence of cardiovascular diseases.” J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 28: 441-453 (1982)

Laidlaw M and Holub BJ. “Effects of supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids and gamma-linolenic acid on circulating plasma lipids and fatty acid profiles in women.” Am J Clin Nutr 77: 37-42 (2003)

Nakamura T, Azuma A, Kuribayashi T, Sugihara H, Okuda S, and Nakagawa M. “Serum fatty acid levels, dietary style and coronary heart in three neighbouring areas in Japan.” Brit J Nutr 89: 267-272 (2003)

Pedesen HS, Mulvad G, Seidelin KN, Malcom GT, and Doudreau DA. “N-3 fatty acids as a risk marker for haemorrhagic stroke.” Lancet 353: 812-813 (1999)

Phinney S. “Potential risk of prolonged gamma-linolenic acid use.” Ann. Int Med 120 692 (1994)

Sears, B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears, B. The OmegaRx Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2002)

Sears, B. The Anti-Inflammation Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2005)

Shimizu S, Akimoto K, Shinmen Y, Kawashima H, Sugano M, and Yamada H. “Sesamin is a potent and specific inhibitor of delta 5 desaturase in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.” Lipids 26: 512-516 (1991)

Sorgi PJ, Hallowell EM, Hutchins HL, Sears B. “Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Nutr J 6:16 (2007)

Yamada T, Strong JP, Ishii T, Ueno T, Koyama M, Wagayama H, Shimizu A, Sakai T, Malcom GT, and Guzman MA. “Atherosclerosis and omega-3 fatty acids in the populations of fishing village and a farming village in Japan.” Athero 153: 469-481 (2000)

Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, Matsuzawa Y, Saito Y, Ishikawa Y, Oikawa S, Sasaki J, Hishida H, Itakura H, Kita T, Kitabatake A, Nakaya N, Sakata T, Shimada K, and Shirato K. “Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomized open-label, blinded endpoint analysis.” Lancet 369: 1090-1098 (2007)

Zuijdgeest-van Leeuwen SD, Dagnelie PC, Rietveld T, van den Berg JWO, and Wilson JHP. “Incorporation and washout of rally administered n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in different plasma lipid fractions.” Brit J Nutr 82: 481-488 (1999)

Chapter 10. Putting It All Together

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Scalbert A, Johnson IT, and Saltmarsh M. “Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond.” Am J Clin Nutr 81: 215S-217S (2005)

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Sears, B. Zone Food Blocks. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Sears, B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears B and Sears L. Zone Meals in Seconds. Regan Books. New York, NY (2004)

Sears, B. What to Eat in the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2003)

Sears, B. A Week in the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2000)

Sears, B. The Anti-Inflammation Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2005)

Yoon JH and Baek SJ. “Molecular targets of dietary polyphenols with anti-inflammatory properties.” Yonsei Med J (Korea) 46: 585-596 (2005)

Chapter 11: Overcoming Obstacles to Your Success

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Chen K, Li F, Li J, Cai H, Strom S, Bisello A, Kelley DE; Friedman-Einat M, Skibinski GA, McCrory MA, Szalai AJ, and Zhao AZ. “Induction of leptin resistance through direct interaction of C-reactive protein with leptin.” Nat Med 12: 425-432 (2006)

Colantuoni C, Schwenker J, McCarthy J, Rada P, Ladenheim B, Cadet JL, Schwartz GJ, Moran TH, and Hoebel BG. “Excessive sugar intake alters binding to dopamine and mu-opioid receptors in the brain.” Neuroreport 12: 3549-3552 (2001)

Darmon N, Darmon M, Maillot M, and Drewnowski A. “A nutrient density standard for vegetables and fruits: nutrients per calorie and nutrients per unit cost.” J Am Diet Assoc 105: 1881-1887 (2005)

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Drewnowski A, Darmon N, and Briend A. “Replacing fats and sweets with vegetables and fruits–a question of cost.” Am J Public Health 94: 1555-1559 (2004)

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Enriori PJ, Evans AE, Sinnayah P, and Cowley MA. “Leptin resistance and obesity.” Obesity 14 Suppl 5:254S-258S (2006)

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Grun F, Watanabe H, Zamanian Z, Maeda L, Arima K, Cubacha R, Gardiner DM, Kanno J, Iguchi T, and Blumberg B. “Endocrine-disrupting organotin compounds are potent inducers of adipogenesis in vertebrates.” Mol Endocrinol 20:2141-2155 (2006)

Heindel JJ. “Endocrine disruptors and the obesity epidemic.” Toxicological Sci 76: 247-249 (2003)

Keith SW, Redden DT, Katzmarzyk PT, Boggiano MM, Hanlon EC, Benca RM, Ruden D, Pietrobelli A, Barger JL, Kontaine KR, Wang C, Aronne LJ, Wright SM, Baskin M, Dhurandhar NV, Lijoi MC, Grilo CM, DeLuca M, Westfall AO, and Allison DB. “Putative contributors to the secular increase in obesity: exploring the roads less traveled.” Int J Obesity 30: 1585-1594 (2006)

Kolata G. Rethinking Thin. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. New York, NY (2006)

Knutson KL, Spiegel K, Penev P, and Van Cauter E. “The metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation.” Sleep Med Rev 11: 163-178 (2007)

Lenoir M, Serre F, Cantin L, and Ahmed SH. “Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward.” PLoS ONE 2: e698 (2007)

Masumo H, Kidani T, Sekiya K, Saykama K, Shiosaka T, Yamamoto H, and Honda K. “Bisphenol A in combination with insulin can accelerate the conversion of 3T3L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes.” J Lipid Res 43: 676-684 (2002)

Miller WC, Koceja DM, and Hamilton EJ. “A meta-analysis of the past 25 years of weight loss research using diet, exercise or diet plus exercise intervention.” Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 21:941-947 (1997)

Monsivais P and Drewnowski A. “The rising cost of low-energy-density foods.” J Am Diet Assoc 107: 2071-2076 (2007)

Naska A, Oikonomou E, Trichopoulou A, Psaltopoulou T, and Trichopoulos D. “Siesta in healthy adults and coronary mortality in the general population.” Arch Intern Med 167: 296-301 (2007)

Nestle, M. Food Politics. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA (2002)

Nestle, M. What to Eat. North Point Press, New York (2006)

Oda E. “n-3 fatty acids and the endocannabinoid system.” Am J Clin Nutr 85: 919 (2007)

Pollan M. The Omnivore’s Dilemma. Penguin Press, New York. (2006)

Rosenbaum M, Goldsmith R, Bloomfield D, Magnano A, Weimer L, Heymsfield S, Gallagher D, Mayer L, Murphy E, and Leibel RL. “Low-dose leptin reverses skeletal muscle, autonomic, and neuroendocrine adaptations to maintenance of reduced weight. J Clin Invest 115: 3579-3586 (2005)

Sakurai K, Kawazuma M, Adachi T, Harigaya T, Saito Y, Hashimoto N, and Mori C. “Bisphenol A affects glucose transport in mouse 3T3-F442A adipocytes.” Br J Pharmacol 141: 209-214 (2004)

Sears B. The Anti-Aging Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1999)

Spangler R, Wittkowski KM, Goddard NL, Avena NM, Hoebel BG, and Leibowitz SF. “Opiate-like effects of sugar on gene expression in reward areas of the rat brain.” Brain Res Mol Brain Res 124: 134-142 (2004)

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Appendix E. Insulin Resistance: It All Starts in Your Adipose Tissue

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Bogacka I, Xie H, Bray GA, and Smith SR. “The effect of pioglitazone on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma target genes related to lipid storage in vivo.” Diabetes Care 2004 Jul;27(7):1660-1667 (2004)

Bonen A, Tandon NN, Glatz JFC, Luiken JJFP, and Heigenhauser GJF. “The fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36 is upregulated in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in human obesity and type 2 diabetes.” Int J Obesity 30: 877-883 (2006)

Borst SE. “The role of TNF-alpha in insulin resistance.” Endocrine 23:177-182 (2004)

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Cinti S, Mitchell G, Barbatelli G, Murano I, Ceresi E, Faloia E, Wang S, Fortier M, Greenberg AS, and Obin MS. “Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans.” J Lipid Res 46: 2347-2355 (2005)

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Flachs P, Horakova O, Brauner P, Rossmeisl M, Pecina P, Franssen-van Hal N, Ruzickova J, Sponarova J, Drahota Z, Vlcek C, Keijer J, Houstek J, and Kopecky J. “Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induce beta-oxidation in white fat.” Diabetologia 48: 2365-2375 (2005)

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Huber J, Loffler M, Bilban M, Reimers M, Kadl A, Todoric J, Zeyda M, Geyeregger R, Schreiner M, Weichhart T, Leitinger N, Waldhausl W, and Stulnig TM. “Prevention of high-fat diet-induced adipose tissue remodeling in obese diabetic mice by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Int J Obes 31: 1004-1013 (2007)

Itoh M, Suganami T, Satoh N, Tanimoto-Koyama K, Yuan X, Tanaka M, Kawano H, Yano T, Aoe S, Takeya M, Shimatsu A, Kuzuya H, Kamei Y, and Ogawa Y. “Increased adiponectin secretion by highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid in rodent models of obesity and human obese subjects.” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27: 1918-1925 (2007)

Kahn S, Hull RL, and Utzschneider KM. “Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.” Nature 444: 840-846 (2007)

Kim JK, Gimeno RE, Higashimori T, Kim H-J, Choi M, Punreddy S, Mozell RL, Tan G, Stricker-Krongrad A, Hirsch DJ, Fillmore JJ, Liu ZX, Dong J, Cline G, Stahl A, Lodish HF, and Shulman GI. “Inactivation of fatty acid transport protein 1 prevents fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.” J Clin Invest 113: 756-763 (2004)

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Kim JY, van de Wall E, Laplante M, Azzara A, Trujillo ME, Hofmann SM, Schraw T, Durand JL, Li H, Li G, Jelicks LA; Mehler MF, Hui DY, Deshaies Y, Shulman GI, Schwartz GJ, and Scherer PE. “Obesity-associated improvements in metabolic profile through expansion of adipose tissue.” J Clin Invest 117: 2621-2637 (2007)

Li H, Ruan XZ, Powis SH, Fernando R, Mon WY, Wheeler DC, Moorhead JF, and Varghese Z. “EPA and DHA reduce LPS-induced inflammation responses in HK-2 cells: evidence for a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism.” Kidney Int 67: 867-874 (2005)

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Mazid MA, Chowdhury AA, Nagao K, Nishimura K, Jisaka M, Nagaya T, and Yokota K. “Endogenous 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) synthesized by adipocytes during maturation phase contributes to upregulation of fat storage.”
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Maeda K, Uysal KT, Makowski L, Gorgun CZ, Atsumi G, Parker RA, Bruning J, Hertzel AV, Bernlohr DA, and Hotamisligil GS. “Role of the fatty acid binding protein mal1 in obesity and insulin resistance.” Diabetes 52: 300-307 (2003)

Maeda K, Cao H, Kono K, Gorgun CZ, Furuhashi M, Uysal KT, Cao Q, Atsumi G, Malone H, Krishnan B, Minokoshi Y, Kahn BB, Parker RA, and Hotamisligil GS. “Adipocyte/macrophage fatty acid binding proteins control integrated metabolic responses in obesity and diabetes.” Cell Metab 1:107-119 (2005)

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Neschen S, Morino K, Rossbacher JC, Pongratz RL, Cline GW,; Sono S, Gillum M, and Shulman GI. “Fish oil regulates adiponectin secretion by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent mechanism in mice.” Diabetes 55: 924-928 (2006)

Neschen S, Morino K, Dong J, Wang-Fischer Y, Cline GW, Romanelli AJ, Rossbacher JC, Moore IK, Regittnig W, Munoz DS, Kim JH, and Shulman GI. “n-3 Fatty acids preserve insulin sensitivity in vivo in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-dependent manner.” Diabetes 56: 1034-1041 (2007)

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Serhan CN. “Resolution phase of inflammation: novel endogenous anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators and pathways.” Annu Rev Immunol 25: 101-137 (2007)

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Todoric J, Loffler M, Huber J, Bilban M, Reimers M, Kadl A, Zeyda M, Waldhausl W, and Stulnig TM. “Adipose tissue inflammation induced by high-fat diet in obese diabetic mice is prevented by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.” Diabetologia 49: 2109-2119 (2006)

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Xu H, Barnes GT, Yang Q, Tan G, Yang D, Chou CJ, Sole J, Nichols A, Ross JS, Tartaglia LA, and Chen H. “Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance.” J Clin Invest 112: 1821-1830 (2003)

Appendix F. Everything You Wanted To Know About Fish Oil,

But Were Afraid to Ask

Arisawa K, Matsumura T, Tohyama C, Saito H, Satoh H, Nagai M, Morita M, and Suzuki T. “Fish intake, plasma omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls in the blood of the Japanese population.”
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Guy RA. “The history of cod liver oil as a remedy.” Am J Dis Children 26: 112-116 (1923)

Kawai K, Matsuno K, and Kasai H. “Detection of 4-oxo-2-hexenal, a novel mutagenic product of lipid peroxidation, in human diet and cooking vapor.” Mutat Res 603:186-192 (2006)

Mandal AK, Zhang Z, Kim S-J, Tsai P-C, and Mukherjee AB. “Ying-Yang: Balancing act of prostaglandins with opposing function to regulate inflammation.” J Immunol 175: 6271-6273 (2005)

Plourde M and Cunnane SC. “Extremely limited synthesis of long chain polyunsaturates in adults: implications for their dietary essentiality and use as supplements.” Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 32: 619-634 (2007)

Rajakumar K. “Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective.” Pediatrics 112: 132-135 (2003)

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Sears, B. The Anti-Inflammation Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2005)

Serhan CN. “Novel omega-3 derived local mediators in anti-inflammation and resolution.” Pharmacol and Therapeutics 105: 7-21 (2005)

Shirai N, Hayashi K, Suzuki H, and Shimizu R. “The effects of Erabu sea snake oil on the plasma lipids and glucose, and liver lipids in mice” Nutr Res 22: 1197-1207 (2002)

Shirai N, Suzuki H, and Shimizu R. “Effect of Erabu sea snake Laticauda semifasciata oil intake on maze-learning ability in mice” Fisheries Res 70 314-318 (2004)

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Appendix G. Nutrigenomics: How Diet Affects the Expression of Your Genes

Baur JA, Pearson KJ, Price NL, Jamieson HA, Lerin C, Kalra A, Prabhu VV, Allard JS, Lopez-Lluch G, Lewis K, Pistell PJ, Poosala S, Becker KG, Boss O, Gwinn D, Wang M, Ramaswamy S, Fishbein KW, Spencer RG, Lakatta EG, Le Couteur D, Shaw RJ, Navas P, Puigserver P, Ingram DK, de Cabo R, and Sinclair DA. “Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet.” Nature 444: 337-342 (2006)

Biesalski HK. “Polyphenols and inflammation: basic interactions.”
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Appendix H. Zone Food Blocks

Sears, B. The Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1995)

Sears B. Mastering the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears, B. Zone Food Blocks. Regan Books. New York, NY (1998)

Sears, B. Zone Perfect Meals in Minutes. Regan Books. New York, NY (1997)

Sears, B. A Week in the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2000)

Sears, B. What to Eat in the Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2003)

Sears B and Sears L. Zone Meals in Seconds. Regan Books. New York, NY (2004)

Sears, B. The Anti-Inflammation Zone. Regan Books. New York, NY (2005)