The emphasis on probiotics is unjustified since polyphenols can be a more powerful modulator of gut health than probiotics. There are more than 1,500 different bacterial strains in your gut, and most of them can’t be cultured since they are anaerobes (can’t exist in the presence of oxygen). It is much more compelling to supply the “fertilizer” (i.e. probiotics) and add the “gardeners” (i.e. polyphenols) to cultivate the complex garden in our gut. Only then can you add a few “flowers” (i.e., probiotics) to complete the garden.